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Greece and Iran, 1000-30 B.C.E. Ancient Iran, 1000–500 B.C.E. Geography and Resources Mountainous edges; salty interior deserts; sloping plateaus limited natural (water/food) resources = limited population; plentiful but underexploited mineral resources The Rise of the Persian Empire

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ancient iran 1000 500 b c e
Ancient Iran, 1000–500 B.C.E.
  • Geography and Resources
    • Mountainous edges; salty interior deserts; sloping plateaus
    • limited natural (water/food) resources = limited population; plentiful but underexploited mineral resources
  • The Rise of the Persian Empire
    • Cyrus (r BCE) – Anatolia (Lydia) & Mesopotamia
    • Cambyses (r 530-522 BCE) – Egypt, Nubia, & Libya
    • Darius (r 522-486 BCE) – Indus Valley & Europe (Thrace)
  • Imperial Organization
    • 20 provinces/20 “satraps”
    • Royal roads and garrisons
    • Opulent Royal Court
    • Susa & Persepolis
  • Ideology and Religion
    • Propaganda contrasts with that of Assyrians; emphasizes cooperation and abundance
    • Zoroastrianism
the rise of the greeks 1000 500 b c e
The Rise of the Greeks, 1000–500 B.C.E.
  • Geography and Resources
    • Homogeneous climate but varied terrain: limited arable land in south, greater agricultural production in north
    • Little timber & few metal deposits; abundance of stone & clay
    • Coastline includes many natural harbors; overland travel difficult
  • The Emergence of the Polis
    • “Archaic” period following “Dark Age” (ca. 1150-800 BCE) included:
      • Greek alphabet & increased population densities
      • Emergence of the independent polis, which featured an acropolis and agora
      • Hoplite defense forces; citizen militias
      • Safety valve “colonies”
        • Hellenes vs. Barbaroi
      • Coinage
      • Land-based aristocracies replace kings; rise of tyrants
      • Anthropomorphic deities with power over nature
        • State-sponsored festivals involving sacrifice
slide7

New Intellectual Currents

    • Poetry emphasizing individuality
    • Flowering of Natural Philosophy
    • Prose-based Logography
      • Herodotus as the “father of history”
  • Athens and Sparta
    • Spartan military state; isolationist and centered in Peloponnese
    • Athenian society’s evolving “democracy”; located in Attica
the struggle of persia and greece 546 323 b c e
The Struggle of Persia and Greece, 546–323 B.C.E.
  • Early Encounters
    • Ionic Rebellion (499 -494 BCE)
    • Spartan-led Hellenistic League (480- 479 BCE)
    • Athenian-led Delian League (ca 477-457 BCE)
  • The Height of Athenian Power
    • Imperialist naval power (Trireme) based in Pireaus
    • Greek philosophy: Socrates, Plato (The Academy), & Aristotle (The Lyceum)
      • Transition from oral to literary culture
slide11
Inequality in Classical Greece
    • Democratic participation extended to free adult males of pure Athenian ancestry
    • Exploitation of Slaves
    • Position of women varied greatly across Greece but males had absolute authority over households
  • Failure of the City-State and Triumph of the Macedonians
    • Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE)
    • Phillip II of Macedonia (r 359-336 BCE)
    • Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE)
the hellenistic synthesis 323 30 b c e
The Hellenistic Synthesis, 323–30 B.C.E.
  • The Hellenistic Kingdoms
    • Seleucid = Western Asia
    • Ptolemies = Egypt and Palestine
      • Alexandria
    • Antigonids = Macedonia