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High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office (HEL-JTO) Recent Developments and Current Projects in HEL Technology. October 9 th 2013. Distribution A, Cleared for Public Release, 377ABW-2010-1318, 17 August 2010. Outline. Introduction to HEL-JTO JTO Technology Thrusts JTO Accelerator projects.

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October 9 th 2013


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    1. High Energy LaserJoint Technology Office (HEL-JTO) Recent Developments and Current Projects in HEL Technology October 9th 2013 Distribution A, Cleared for Public Release, 377ABW-2010-1318, 17 August 2010

    2. Outline • Introduction to HEL-JTO • JTO Technology Thrusts • JTO Accelerator projects Approved for Public Release

    3. A Coordinated Approach for HEL Weapons System Development HEL-JTO Formation • FY00 National Defense Authorization Act request to develop laser plan • FY00 High Energy Laser Executive Review Panel chartered Approved for Public Release JTO Charter: AdvocateHEL technology development for DoD Coordinateamong the Services and Agencies Develop technology investment strategy for DoD Managea portfolio of government/industry/academia R&D projects

    4. HEL-JTO Organization • ASD (R&E) • Operational Oversight • Air Force S&T • Executive • Admin • Oversight Technology Council S&T Executives (Army, Navy, AF, MDA, DARPA, DTRA) Director & Deputy Director Contractor Technical and Administrative Support • AFRL/RD Support • Contracting • Financial • Public Affairs • Security Budget/Finance Executive Assistant Army Representative Navy Representative Air Force Representative MDA DARPA Tech Area, Contracts Monitor Tech Area, Contracts Monitor Tech Area, Contracts Monitor Technology Area Working Groups Approved for Public Release

    5. HEL-JTO Technology Thrust Area • Laser Devices • Solid State • Gas • Free Electron Beam Control Diode Pump • Atmospheric Propagation • Thermal Blooming • Turbulence Effects Laser-Target Interaction Pointing Heat Beam Combining Heat Thermal Management Target Beam Conditioning & Adaptive Optics Heat Wavefront Sensor Windows & Mirrors Power Conditioning Diode Pump Illuminator Advanced Concepts Fire Control Example: Solid State Laser Engagement & System Modeling Approved for Public Release

    6. Fiber HEL-JTO Electric Laser Technology Dielectric Edge Mirrors (DEMs) • High power fibers • Beam combining techniques • High Power Fiber Components Beam Combiner Stacked Oscillators Er-doped PCF High Power Laser Fiber Fusion Spliced All-Fiber Isolator Approved for Public Release

    7. Horizontal diode stack (3-bar) Transformlens grating Output coupler HEL-JTO Electric Laser Technology • Ceramic gain materials • Eye safer wavelength (slabs and fibers) • Efficient and High Temperature diode arrays VCSEL Array assembled on Patterned Surface Composite Heat Spreader Wavelength Beam Combining of Diode Bars 10%Yb:Lu2O3 ceramic Approved for Public Release

    8. Solid State Laser Thrust SSL State-of-the-Art: (TRL 4 - 5) • Efficient diode arrays – 50%=>70% diodes available • High power fibers > 500W/fiber—combinable to KW’s • Ceramic Slabs – 100KW at 18% wallplug efficiency Approved for Public Release

    9. Gas Laser Thrust ATL: KW-Class Sealed Exhaust COIL for Tactical Applications • Field Demonstrations Complete ABL: MW-Class COIL for Strategic Applications • Field Demonstrations Completed Approved for Public Release

    10. Beam Control Thrust BC State-of-the-Art: (TRL 6) • Disturbances • Atmospheric propagation Characterized to 100’s KM • Optical Components • Windows/Coatings for KW/cm2 power levels • Aimpoint Maintenance • Precision tracking • Jitter control • Platform-dependent Approved for Public Release

    11. Advanced Concepts Thrust Advanced Concepts Thrust • Novel Concept Exploration • Too “Risky” for Other Thrusts • Includes: USPL, Materials, Beam Combination Approved for Public Release

    12. JTO Thrust Areas for FEL Research • Injectors and Cathodes • Development of high current and high charge low emittance injectors • Explore robust superconducting RF photocathode and thermionic injector technology • MW RF input couplers and booster cryomodules for the SRF injector. • Megawatt Electron Beam Physics and Engineering: • Basic and applied research on the physics and technology relevant to the ONR INP FEL and MW class FEL future systems. • Studies of MW electron beam and optical beam physics and modeling and simulation for FEL cathodes, injectors, accelerators, and architectures need to conducted. Design and development of FEL components based on these studies. •  FEL Sensor Development: • Basic and applied research on the design, development, characterization and of THz sources and detectors Approved for Public Release

    13. Free Electron Laser Capabilities: • Provides effective and affordable point defense capability against: • Current / future surface and air threats • Future Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles and Tactical Ballistic Missiles • Swarm of small boats and asymmetric threats • Provides discrimination and sensing capabilities greater than current Naval radar systems. Warfighter Impact: • Low life cycle cost • Multi-mission / scalable • All electric for deep non-explosive magazine Approved for Public Release

    14. Technology Challenges for a MW Class FEL • Reduce accelerator footprint and weight • Develop High Power Optics • Complete Room Temperature Injector Operation at High Current and High Energy • Design Changes to Enable Shipboard Integration. Approved for Public Release

    15. FY07 MRI Projects • (MRI) Fundamental Understanding of Optical Coatings and Novel Strategies for Power Scaling of High Power Free Electron Lasers (FELs) • Colorado State University • (MRI) Collective Beam Dynamics and Coherent Radiation Production from High Brightness Electron Beams: Application to ERL-Based Free-electron Lasers • UCLA • (MRI) Research In Technology For High Average Power FELs • University of Maryland • (MRI) High-Brightness Cathodes for High-Power FELs • Vanderbilt University Approved for Public Release

    16. FY12 MRI Grants • Electro-Optical Sampling System for a High-Power ERL-Driven FEL • Colorado State University, Biedron • Investigation of Beam Source and Collective Effects and Instabilities Relevant to FELs • Naval Postgraduate School Approved for Public Release

    17. FY10 BAA Projects • MW Class On–Axis RF Coupler for SRF injector for NPS • Niowave (Selected for 2nd year funding) • Novel FEL Cavity Optic • JLab (Selected for 2nd year funding) • Halo and Radiation Simulations Thru Undulators/ERL’s • STIO Approved for Public Release

    18. FY12 BAA Efforts • Superconducting 700 MHz Multi-Spoke Injector for a MW class FEL • Niowave, Grimm • Laser damage of optical coatings up to 2.5 microns for MW-class Free Electron Lasers • CSU, Menoni • Modeling of High Average Power FEL Beamline Components through the Application of Fast, Accurate GPU-based Simulations • SAIC, Petillo Approved for Public Release

    19. FY11 S&A Projects • Emittance and Bunch Shape of Diamond Amplified Pulsed Electron Sources • NRL • High-Average Current Injectors for MW Class FELs • NRL • Expanding Superconducting Radio-Frequency Photonic Band Gap Structures Accelerator Technology to 2.1 GHz • LANL Approved for Public Release

    20. The Mark I QW SRF Gun at NPS Nov 2012 – in operation in vault with radiation shielding Approved for Public Release

    21. The Mark I QW SRF Gun Cryogen feeds & Instrumentation LHe tank RF coupler assembly Solenoid Cathode assembly Vacuum tank Superconducting cavity Magnetic shield 77K N2 shield Approved for Public Release

    22. Mark I Progress and Status • The Mark I was built and tested at Niowave, results published in 2011 • Low-power testing was performed at NPS while awaiting safety approvals for high-power operation • In Sept 2012 the first beam was generated • In Oct 2012 the Mark I was moved into the vault • In Nov 2012 the Mark I was operated in the vault at full field (750 kV gap voltage). With 70 mR/hr inside the vault, nothing detectable outside • The Mark I is ready to be used as a platform for testing cathodes in a superconducting gun Approved for Public Release

    23. Summary • Technology maturation is an enabler for high power FEL • In previous years, JTO has supported the development of technologies and components to: • Understand and model the physics of Space-Charge, CSR, Halo, Beam Break-up, Cathode Surface Science and Optical Thin Films • Establish technical basis to support MW Class Shipboard FEL Approved for Public Release