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  1. Air and Space Power Today Captain Ball Ops Flight Commander

  2. Overview • The Global War on Terror • Background • Launching the War on Terror • Operation ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF) • Objectives of OEF • Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions • Operation Anaconda • Operation IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF) • Background • Objectives of OIF • Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions • Operation New Dawn (OND) • Military Lessons Learned • Evolution of Airpower

  3. Guide to Success on the Exam • Samples of Behavior  • Air and Space Power Today, Chapter 8 • Lecture will cover 45% of material on test • 70 pages; start reading now, not the week of the test • Robert’s Ridge_ Watch video at home • Failure to read = Failure to pass the exam

  4. The Global War on Terror Background OEF marked the beginning of a broader US and international global war on terrorism, but our enemies actually declared war on us through acts and words years earlier. Sheik Rahman Osama bin Laden

  5. The Global War on Terror Background • The 1983 suicide bomb attack against US Marines in Lebanon was our first introduction to this war—220 Marines were killed in the attack. • The first World Trade Center bombing in Feb 1993 killed 6 and injured over 1,000 people.

  6. The Global War on Terror Background In 1996, Osama bin Laden issued his fatwa: a “Declaration of WarAgainst the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places.”

  7. The Global War on Terror Background In 1996, the Khobar Towers USAF facility in Saudi Arabia was attacked with a truck bomb. That attack killed 19 Airmen.

  8. The Global War on Terror Background • US Embassy bombings in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar el Salaam, Tanzania in 1998 • US retaliated withstrikes against Sudanand Afghanistan • USS Cole attackedin Yemen, killing 17 Americans US Embassy Nairobi Damaged USS Cole

  9. The Global War on Terror Background • September 11, 2001 attack launched on the United States using airliners as piloted missiles • Two airliners crashed into the World Trade Center twin towers (3,000 dead, towers destroyed). • Third airliner crashed into the Pentagon • Fourth airliner crashed into a field in western PA

  10. The Global War on Terror Background • Attacks on September 11, 2001 motivated the United States to initiate the Global War on Terrorism • The first battle zone: Afghanistan and the Taliban

  11. What additional areas belong on this map?

  12. Launching the War on Terror • U.S. announces two-pronged approach (9/20/01) • Go after the terrorists “Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped, and defeated.” • Go after their supporters “Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make. From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime.” Accountable Beginning of a new U.S. National Security Policy

  13. Launching the War on Terror • Not just a War of “military force” • Department of Homeland Security is established (NORTHCOM too) • American diplomats forge different coalitions of nations willing to engage in the war on terrorism in a variety of ways • Law enforcement agencies, at home and abroad, work around the clock to uproot terror networks and disrupt potential attacks

  14. Launching the War on Terror • More than Military Force: • Financial regulators and law enforcement combine forces to deprive terrorists of sources of financial support • Reserves and the National Guard patrol US skies and bolster the security of airports and other public places • US intelligence community redoubles efforts to gain needed intelligence and prepare for a series of covert actions

  15. Launching the War on Terror • Global Perspective • GWOT & OEF Broader than just Afghanistan. OEF: • The Philippines (2002 – present) • Bosnia (2001-2002?) • Africa (2005 - present) • OEF CCA (2008) • GWOT encompasses many ops in multiple countries • Introduction of Doctrine of Preemption • A fundamental change to US Policy “I will not wait on events, while dangers gather. I will not stand by, as peril draws closer and closer. The United States of America will not permit the world’s most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world’s most destructive weapons.”

  16. OEF Military Operations* • US Objectives for OEF (7 Oct 2001) • Make clear to the Taliban leaders and their supporters that harboring terrorists is unacceptable and carried a price • Acquire intelligence to facilitate future operations against al Qaeda and the Taliban regime that harbored the terrorists • Develop relationships with groups in Afghanistan that oppose the Taliban regime and the foreign terrorists that they support

  17. OEF Military Operations* • US Objectives for OEF (cont’d) • Make it increasingly difficult for terrorists to use Afghanistan freely as a base of operation • Alter the military balance over time by denying the Taliban the offensive systems that hamper the progress of the various opposition forces • Provide humanitarian relief to Afghans suffering truly oppressive living conditions under the Taliban regime

  18. OEF Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • Airpower’s evolving roles: • Data Fusion • Air-Ground Synergy • Humanitarian Relief and Force Sustainment • Space Support to Force Employers • CAOC Operations • Build-Up at Manas • New Technology

  19. OEF Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • Data Fusion • Historic deployment of ISR umbrella • E-3s, E-8s, RC-135s, RPAs, U-2s • Fighters w/ infrared targeting capabilities • Targeting coordinates e-mailed to aircraft • Greater connectivity between sensors and shooters • Shortened kill chain via satellite data link (Special Ops to B-52) • Highly beneficial in joint ops • AF Predator cuing Navy fighter crews

  20. OEF Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • Air-Ground Synergy • Close synchronization of air and land power • Special forces teams included CIA operatives and Air Force TACP members • Air Force controllers integrated with Army Special Forces • Result was ground-enabled precision strike instead of classic close air support

  21. OEF Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • Air-Ground Synergy

  22. Class 2

  23. OEF Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • Humanitarian Relief and Force Sustainment • Air mobility effort was massive—3rd behind Berlin airlift and Desert Shield • Humanitarian aid operation was personal creation of President Bush • 2 million human daily rations had been delivered by 30 Nov • OEF was first American campaign in which airlift provided ALL military supplies for several months

  24. OEF Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • Space Support to Force Employers • Provided info for Special Ops mission planning • Strike planning • Notification of potentially hostile overhead satellites • BRITE—Provided near-real-time satellite info to GF • Prototype system • Relay coordinates of objects of interest/photos transmitted

  25. OEF Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • Space Support to Force Employers (cont’d) • Bandwidth was an issue—Severely limited the number of RPAs that could be in use at a given time • Global Hawk consumed 500 megabits per second (Desert Storm) • Six Predators and 2 Global Hawks available in ctry, but only 2 Predators and 1 Global Hawk airborne simultaneously • “Space support now measured with a stopwatch instead of a calendar” • Greatly enhanced collection, processing & distro of time-sensitive data • Several systems share bandwidth on 1 satellite transponder?

  26. OEF Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • CAOC Operations • New CAOC was at PSAB, Saudi Arabia • Coherent and cooperative group of planners from all the services to enable fully integrated coalition air ops • Had to handle both OSW and OEF mission • Outstanding system but limited by lack of personnel and training 70,000 sq ft

  27. OEF Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • Buildup at Manas, Kyrgyzstan • US military tent cities established at 13 sites in 9 countries (E. Europe & Central Asia) • 86th Contingency Response Group was significant player in its establishment • Diplomatic challenges in former USSR state • Unloaded 6,000,000 lbs of materials by Jan 2002 • By May 2002, Manas had about 2,000 coalition forces in place • Allied presence welcomed in 2001, but later govt demanded it closed by July 2014

  28. OEF Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • New Technology • OEF helped validate new concepts and technology • CIA firing of Hellfire missiles from Predators • Earth penetrator weapons; computer-controlled hard-target “smart” fuse; thermobaric devices • Measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) • Foliage-penetrating radar • Hyperspectral imaging • Pattern-change tracking technology

  29. Operation Anaconda: HOMEWORK! • Robert’s Ridge_42minutes_15 pts on Exam • Watch video at home • Essay answering the following questions: • What were some of the challenges to effective use of airpower? • What does this video show about the value of remotely piloted aircraft? • What should this event teach us about planning for joint operations? Requirements: 2 pgs, double-spaced, Times New Roman, 12 pt, 1 fellow cadet will proofread • This is a mandatory assignment., not extra credit. It is worth 15 out of 100 points for Exam 3.

  30. Operation Anaconda: HOMEWORK HINTS! 1. What were some of the challenges to the effective use of airpower? Intel Reports? Communication/Coordination? Location of Enemy? 2. What does this video show about the value of remotely piloted aircraft? Reach? Timing? Technology? 3. What should this event teach us about planning for joint operations? Input from stakeholders? Planning? • These are ideas. Listen for others in the video

  31. Video: Operation Anaconda Operation Anaconda: The Battle of Roberts Ridge

  32. Transition to OIF • Operation IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF) • Background • Objectives of OIF • Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions • Operation New Dawn (OND) • Military Lessons Learned • Summary: Evolution of Airpower

  33. OIF Background • After major combat operations in Afghanistan ended, the US shifted focus to Saddam Hussein’s regime • UN Resolution 687 codified Cease Fire Agreement for the Gulf War • Iraq was testing and breaking these agreements We will be examining OIF from a military, rather than a political perspective

  34. OIF Background • Paragraph 8 stated that Iraq must “…unconditionally accept the destruction, removal, or rendering harmless, under international supervision of:” • All chemical/biological weapons • All ballistic missiles with range greater than 150 km

  35. OIF Background • Paragraph 12 addressed nuclear capabilities, stating that Iraq must “…agree not to acquire or develop nuclear weapons or nuclear weapon-usable material • Paragraph 32, with regards to terrorism, stated that “…[Iraq] will not commit or support any act of international terrorism”

  36. OIF Background • 12 Sept 2002: President Bush addressed the UN General Assembly to highlight observed violations and attempt to gather further international support for action against Iraq • 16 Oct 2002: President Bush signed the Iraq War Resolution   • 8 Nov 2002: The UN Security Council passed Resolution 1441

  37. OIF Background • Dr. Blix (chief UN investigator) reported non-cooperation to the UN Security Council multiple times • In February 2003, Secretary Powell addressed the UN Security Council • Iraq continues to defy UN resolutions requiring disarmament and that it’s time to take action to enforce them. • Iraq could supply WMD to others…

  38. OIF Background • 16 Mar 2003: President Bush demanded senior leaders leave Iraq within 48 hours • 19 Mar 2003: President Bush addressed the nation stating that military operations had begun in Iraq

  39. OIF Air Campaign • OIF Air Campaign = One decade of operations • Operations NORTHERN WATCH and SOUTHERN WATCH • Result: Not a single Iraqi Combat Sortie during OIF

  40. OIF Military Objectives • End the regime of Saddam Hussein • Identify, isolate, and eliminate Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction • Search for, to capture, and to drive out terrorists from that country • Collect intelligence related to terrorist’s networks

  41. OIF Military Objectives (cont’d)* • Collect intelligence related to the global network of illicit weapons of mass destruction • End sanctions and to immediately deliver humanitarian support to the displaced and…needy Iraqi citizens • Help the Iraqi people create conditions for a transition to a representative self-government

  42. Beginning of OIF • Preparatory steps began in late 2002 when no-fly patrols began to suppress Iraqi air defenses • G-Day surprised even U.S. forces (Intel on COG) • 19 March, G-day: Intel reports indicated the location of Saddam Hussein and his sons • Attacked using cruise missiles & stealth aircraft • All forces not in place when op began • US/UK ground forces invaded w/little air bombardment preparation CJCS: “surprise…victory is its own validation.”

  43. Size & Nature of Air Component • U.S. had over 1,000 acft in theater as war began; 1,663 fixed-wing acft used at peak of fighting • Combination of sortie generation numbers & sortie quality allowed coalition to generate 41,404 sorties against an Iraqi Air Force that generated NONE

  44. Size & Nature of Air Component: Sortie Totals

  45. Size & Nature of Air Component* • Key missions for the coalition air forces • Neutralize the ability of the Iraqi government to command its forces • Establish control of the airspace over Iraq • Provide air support for special ops forces & Army and Marine forces that would advance toward Baghdad • Neutralize Iraq’s forces of surface-to-surface missiles and suspected caches of biological weapons

  46. Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • Role of the Reserve Component • Guard and Reserve forces played extensive role in OIF • Made up 9.5% of US troops • Total number of reserves called up by late April 2003: Nearly 224,000 • Air National Guard deployed 236 aircraft and AF Reserve sent 70 • 2,084 USAF Reserve personnel • 7,207 ANG personnel

  47. Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • Value of Expeditionary Airpower • Expeditionary Combat Support (ECS) critical • 46K sorties w/ 98% maintenance effectiveness rate • Issued more than 1 million gallons of jet fuel!!! • Delivered 21.5 million pounds of ammunition • Served 111,000 hot meals/day; positioned 2.7 million MREs • Positioned 91K chemical warfare suits • …and much, much more! Capt Ball’s old job

  48. Airpower’s Distinctive Contributions* • IntelligenceStrength • US space and intel assets had studied and targeted Iraq for more than 12 yrs • ISR assets and data • 80 acft dedicated to ISR mission • RPAs, E-8C JSTARS, etc • Over 1,000 sorties, they collected 3,200 hrs of streaming video, 2,400 hrs of SIGINT, and 42,000 battlefield images • ISR managed from the CAOC at PSAB under CFACC, Lt Gen “Buzz” Moseley

  49. Intelligence Weaknesses • All the prewar and war efforts still left major gaps • Lack of experts and analysts • No credible picture of links to terrorists • Need more language skills at all levels • Difficulty in determining activities within buildings • Mistargeting and over-targeting of facilities • Poor casualty and BDA assessment processes • d