What is the significance of 1763 as a Turning Point in the relationship between England and her North American Colonies?. The Path to Revolution 1763-1776.
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What is the significance of 1763 as a Turning Point in the relationship between England and her North American Colonies?
These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives every thing its value.
Thomas Paine, The Crisis
Motivations for European nations
-French: exploit (trade)
-Long History of British and French rivalry
-French were outnumbered in North America 30 to 1
-French and Indian War (1756-1763)
French and Indian War
French surrender all territorial claims in North America
-Britain becomes the dominate power in North America
-British victory created sources of tension between American colonies and England
*The Radical Whigs or Jug Heads were "a group of British political commentators" associated with the British Whig faction who were at the forefront of “Radicalism” They played a significant role in the development of the American Revolution, as their republican writings were widely read by the American colonists, many of whom were convinced by their reading that they should be very watchful for any threats to their liberties.
Subsequently, when the colonists were indignant about their perceived lack of democratic representation and taxes such as the Stamp Act, Sugar Act, and Tea Act, the colonists broke away from Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United States.
Historians usually view the American Revolution as having developed in four (4) parts:
With the conclusion of the French and Indian War, land was available beyond the Appalachians,
however Royal Proclamation of 1763caused colonial resentment since it closed the frontier to colonial expansion.
The Proclamation Lineextended from the Atlantic coast at Quebec to the newly established border of West Florida and declared the Indians to be under protection of the king
Also British royal posts were to be established along the frontier.
- Reduced the rate of taxation on molasses from 6 pence to 3 pence
- Also provided for taxes on coffee, wines, and calico
- The British Navy was instructed to be more active in customs enforcement
-Parliament assumed control of the colonial currency system
-Prohibited the issue of any new bills or the reissuing of existing currency bills
-This effectively abolished colonial currency
-Required the use of “hard money” (specie)
- Parliament’s first serious attempt to assert governmental authority over the colonies
- Applied stamp duties on items such as paper, licenses, playing cards, newspapers, or any other items written or printed on paper
- This act required colonists to house and feed the British soldiers who were placed in the colonies, most particularly in the towns and cities.
- Boston was the city most affected by this act.
Repeal of the Stamp Act and Passage of the Declaratory Act!
Declaratory Act re-iterated Britain’s right to make laws and regulations for the governing of the colonies.
Britain’s Navigation Laws were only loosely enforced which posed no intolerable burdens on American colonials ( EnglishNavigation Acts were a series of lawsthat restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England, a process which had started in 1651)
- Taxes on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea were applied .
Charles Townshend spearheaded the Townshend Acts, but died before their detrimental effects became apparent.
March 5, 1770
British revenue schooner ran ashore and burned by Rhode Island Sons of Liberty.
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773
- Passed by Parliament in May, the act required that only tea imported into the colonies by the East India Company could be sold.
- The price of tea was lowered before the tax was imposed.
-Tea was lower in price even with the added tax!
- Boston Port Act (closed Boston Port)
- Massachusetts Government Act (shut down the Massachusetts legislature)and forbid town meetings)
- Quartering Act of 1774 (required further housing and feeding of troops)
- Quebec Act (established laws for regulating Quebec, guaranteed free practice of Catholic faith, took over lands in western areas)
- Administration of Justice Act (changed trial venues for officials charged with crimes)
Adopted a nonimportation policy toward British goods (offenders were whipped or tarred and feathered)
Lexington and Concord
- April 19, 1775
- 8 Americans Killed
- British were attempting to seize colonial supplies and leaders
What a glorious morning this is!