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Chapter Objectives
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  1. Chapter Objectives • Composition of the blood plasma. • Functions of the three types of blood cells. • Blood types. • Immunity and the possible sources of immunity. • Roots and suffixes pertaining to the blood and immunity Chapter 10: Blood and Immunity

  2. Key Terms

  3. Key Terms (cont’d)

  4. Key Terms (cont’d)

  5. Key Terms (cont’d)

  6. Key Terms (cont’d)

  7. Key TermsDisorders

  8. Key TermsDisorders (cont’d)

  9. Key TermsDisorders (cont’d)

  10. Key TermsDisorders (cont’d)

  11. Key TermsDisorders (cont’d)

  12. Key TermsDisorders (cont’d)

  13. Key TermsDiagnosis and Treatment

  14. Supplementary TermsNormal Structure and Function

  15. Supplementary TermsSymptoms and Conditions

  16. Supplementary TermsSymptoms and Conditions (cont’d)

  17. Supplementary TermsSymptoms and Conditions (cont’d)

  18. Supplementary TermsSymptoms and Conditions (cont’d)

  19. Key TermsDiagnosis

  20. Key TermDiagnosis (cont’d)

  21. Key TermsTreatment

  22. Key TermsTreatment (cont’d)

  23. Abbreviations

  24. Abbreviations (cont’d)

  25. Abbreviations (cont’d)

  26. Abbreviations (cont’d)

  27. Abbreviations (cont’d)

  28. Suffixes for Blood

  29. Blood Plasma • 90% water • Rest contains: • Nutrients • Electrolytes (dissolved salts) • Gases • Albumin (protein) • Clotting factors • Antibodies • Wastes • Enzymes • Hormones • Relative acidity (pH) steady at 7.4

  30. Blood Cells • Produced in red bone marrow • Three kinds: • 1) Red = erythrocytes • 2) White = leukocytes • 3) Platelets = thrombocytes

  31. Erythrocytes • Main function: carry oxygen to cells • Most numerous of blood cells • Short lifespan (120 days) requires constant replacement • Production regulated by erythropoietin (hormone made in kidneys)

  32. Leukocytes • Five different types: • Granulocytes • Neutrophils • Eosinophils • Basophils • Agranulocytes • Lymphocytes • Monocytes

  33. Leukocytes (cont’d) • Protect against foreign substances • Relative numbers of each different for different disease conditions

  34. Platelets • Important for hemostasis • Most active during coagulation • Stick together to plug injury site • Interact with clotting factors in plasma to make wound-sealing clot • Convert fibrinogen to threads of fibrin • Threads of fibrin trap blood cells and plasma to make clot

  35. Blood Types • Determined by genetically inherited proteins • Most familiar groups are ABO and Rh • Type A, B, AB, O • Rh-positive, Rh-negative • Important to match for blood transfusions • Compatible types determined by cross-matching

  36. Immunity • Protection against disease • Innate: • Based on genetic makeup • Include: • Unbroken skin • Cilia • Mucus • Bactericidal body secretions • Reflexes • Lymphoid tissue • Phagocytes

  37. Immunity (cont’d) • Adaptive: • Acquired during life, specific to disease organism • T cells • B cells

  38. Roots for Blood and Immunity

  39. Roots for Blood and Immunity (cont’d)

  40. Types of Adaptive Immunity • Natural Adaptive: • Active: contact with disease organism • Passive: transfer of antibodies • Naturally (placenta or mother’s milk) • Artificial Adaptive: • Active: vaccine • Passive: immune serum

  41. Roots for Chemistry

  42. Clinical Aspects: Blood • Anemia • Decrease in hemoglobin in blood • Can result from: • Too few red blood cells • Cells are too small • Too little hemoglobin

  43. Clinical Aspects: Blood (cont’d) • Key tests involve blood counts, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration • Symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, pallor, irritability

  44. Anemia Due to Impaired Production • Aplastic anemia = destruction of bone marrow • May be caused by drugs, toxins, viruses, radiation, or bone marrow cancer • Nutritional anemia (includes pernicious anemia) = deficiency of vitamin B12 • Caused by iron deficiency

  45. Anemia Due to Impaired Production (cont’d) • Pernicious anemia = lack of intrinsic factor • Sideroblastic anemia = body doesn’t use iron properly

  46. Anemia Due to Destruction • Hemorrhagic anemia • Results from blood loss • Thalassemia (includes Cooley anemia) • Hereditary disease causing rupture of red cells • Affects production of hemoglobin

  47. Anemia Due to Destruction (cont’d) • Sickle cell anemia • Mutation alters hemoglobin molecule • Deformed cells block blood vesselsand prevent tissues from receiving oxygen

  48. Coagulation Disorders • Thrombocytopenia • Deficiency in number of platelets • Disseminated intravascular coagulation • Widespread clotting, obstructing circulation to tissues • Hemophilia • Hereditary deficiency of specific clotting factor • Sex-linked disease: Passed from mother to son

  49. Neoplasms • Leukemia • Rapidly dividing, but incompetent white blood cells • Causes unknown, but may include radiation, heredity • Symptoms: anemia, fatigue, easy bleeding, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly • Causes: exposure to radiation, hereditary, viral infection

  50. Neoplasms (cont’d) • Leukemia (cont’d) • Categories: myelogenous, lymphocytic • Acute • Acute myeloblastic • Acute lymphoblastic • Chronic • Chronic granulocytic • Chronic lymphocytic • Treatment includes: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, bone marrow transplantation