HollowWaveguides 光電100 F84966119 侯昕華
Outline • Introduction • BasisofHollowWaveguides • StructuresofHollowWaveguides • Metal-TubeWaveguides • Plastic-Tubewaveguides • HollowGlassWaveguides • HollowWaveguideswithODR • Applications • References
Introduction • The principle of total internal reflection, which operates in water stream, can be used for bringing the light to proper destination by a glass tube. • On this basis the light can be delivered by a fiber or by a hollow waveguide. • For the visible and low power level optical the fibers are a good solution for the delivery system.
Introduction • The transmission of light through an ordinary glass fiber is limited by the spectral transmission of glass. It is not transparent in the UV region and in the infrared region. • The maximum energy transmitted through the fiber is determined by the air breakdown and by the damage threshold of the fiber front surface and the bulk. • And such waveguide structures suffer the fundamental limitations associated with light propagation through solids, such as dispersion, absorption, scattering and nonlinear effects.
Introduction • A possible solution can be the fiber having its core formed by the air, i.e., hollow waveguides. • By using highly reflective walls in a hollow core, the light can be constrained to form a waveguide.
BasisofHollowWaveguides • According to the effective index of refraction coefficient value the hollow waveguides can be grouped into two categories: • “Leaky” waveguides whose wall materials have refractive indices greater than one (nwall>1). • “Attenuated total reflectance ” (ATR) waveguides whose wall is composed of dielectric materials with refractive indices less than one in the wavelength region of interest (nwall<1).
BasisofHollowWaveguides • The basis of hollow waveguides is a tube, which can be made of plastic, metal, special or ordinary glass or crystal.
Structures ofHollow Waveguides Hollow Waveguides
StructuresofHollowWaveguides • Metal-Tube Waveguides
StructuresofHollowWaveguides • Plastic-Tube Waveguides
StructuresofHollowWaveguides • Hollow Glass Waveguides
StructuresofHollowWaveguides • Hollow Waveguides with Omni-Directional Reflector
Applications Hollow Waveguides
Applications • Applications of hollow waveguides fall into two broad categories: laser power delivery and fiber sensors. • The use of hollow glass or metallic waveguides to deliver laser power has largely been relegated to laser surgery where the required power is less than 100 W.
Applications • As sensors, hollow waveguides are generally used either to transmit blackbody radiation for temperature measurements or as an active or passive link for chemical sensing. • The hollow waveguides may be used merely as a passive fiber link from the chemical processing area to a remote detector, or they may play a more active role in which the guide is filled with the gas to be sensed.
References Hollow Waveguides
References • Helena, J., Michal, N., Jan, S., Pavel, C., Mitsunobu, M., Yi-Wei, S., et al. (2004). Hollow waveguide delivery systems for laser technological application. Progress in Quantum Electronics, 28, 145-164. • Hollow Waveguides - IR Fiber Review. (n.d.). From Specialty Fiber Optics: irfibers.rutgers.edu/ir_rev_hgw.html • James, H. A. (2000). A Review of IR Transmitting, Hollow Waveguides. Fiber and Integrated Optics , 211-227. • Mihai, I., Steven, J. G., Marin, S., J. D., J., Yoel, F., Ori, W., et al. (2003). Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers. PHYSICAL REVIEW E, 67, 046608-1-046608-8. • Shih-Shou, L., Chii-Chang, C., Shih-Chieh, H., & Cheng-Yi, L. (2006). Fabricating a Hollow Optical Waveguide for Optical Communication Applications. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, 15 (3), 584-587. • Shih-Shou, L., Mou-Sian, W., & Chii-Chang, C. (2004). Semiconductor hollow optical waveguides formed by omni-directional reflectors. OPTICS EXPRESS, 12, 6589-6593. • Total internal reflection - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (2010). Retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_reflection • Waveguide (electromagnetism) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (2010). Retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waveguide_(electromagnetism)
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