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Activity-Based Costing: A Tool to Aid Decision Making. Chapter 8. ABC is designed to provide managers with cost information for strategic and other decisions that potentially affect capacity and therefore affect “fixed” as well as variable costs. ABC is a

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Activity-Based Costing: A Tool to Aid Decision Making


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    1. Activity-Based Costing: A Tool to Aid Decision Making Chapter 8

    2. ABC is designed to provide managers with cost information for strategic and other decisions that potentially affect capacity and therefore affect “fixed”as well as variable costs. ABC is a good supplement to our traditional cost system Activity–Based Costing (ABC) I agree!

    3. Learning Objective 1 Understand activity-based costing and how it differs from a traditional costing system.

    4. How Costs are Treated UnderActivity–Based Costing ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways. Manufacturingcosts Nonmanufacturingcosts Traditionalproduct costing ABCproduct costing  ABC assigns both types of costs to products.

    5. How Costs are Treated UnderActivity–Based Costing ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways. Manufacturingcosts Nonmanufacturingcosts Most, butnot all Some All Traditionalproduct costing ABCproduct costing • ABC does not assign all manufacturing costs to products.

    6. How Costs are Treated UnderActivity–Based Costing ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways. Activity–Based Costing Departmental Overhead Rates Level of complexity Plantwide Overhead Rate Number of cost pools • ABC uses more cost pools.

    7. How Costs are Treated UnderActivity–Based Costing ABC differs from traditional cost accounting in three ways. Each ABC cost pool has itsown unique measure of activity. Traditional cost systems usually relyon volume measures such as direct laborhours and/or machine hours to allocateall overhead costs to products. • ABC uses more cost pools.

    8. How Costs are Treated UnderActivity–Based Costing An event that causes the consumption of overhead resources. Activity A “cost bucket” in which costs related to a single activity measure are accumulated. Activity Cost Pool $ $ $ $ $ $

    9. The term cost driver is also used to refer to an activity measure. Activity Measure An allocation basein an activity-basedcosting system. How Costs are Treated UnderActivity–Based Costing

    10. Transactiondriver Durationdriver Simple countof the number oftimes an activityoccurs. A measureof the amountof time neededfor an activity. How Costs are Treated UnderActivity–Based Costing Two common types of activity measures:

    11. How Costs are Treated UnderActivity–Based Costing ABC definesfive levels of activitythat largely do not relateto the volume of unitsproduced. Traditional cost systems usually rely on volumemeasures such as direct labor hours and/or machinehours to allocate all overhead costs to products.

    12. Unit-Level Activity Batch-Level Activity Manufacturingcompanies typically combinetheir activities into fiveclassifications. Product-Level Activity Customer-Level Activity Organization-sustaining Activity How Costs are Treated UnderActivity–Based Costing

    13. Strong topmanagement support Link to evaluationsand rewards Cross-functionalinvolvement Characteristics of Successful ABC Implementations

    14. Baxter Battery – An ABC Example Manufacturing overhead is allocated to products usinga single plantwide overhead rate based on machine hours.

    15.  Define Activities, Activity Cost Pools, and Activity Measures At Baxter Battery, the ABC team, selected the followingactivity cost pools and activity measures:

    16.  Define Activities, Activity Cost Pools, and Activity Measures • Customer Orders - assigned all costs of resources that are consumed by taking and processing customer orders. • Design Changes- assigned all costs of resources consumed by customer requested design changes. • Order Size - assigned all costs of resources consumed as a consequence of the number of units produced. • Customer Relations – assigned all costs associated with maintaining relations with customers. • Other – assigned all organization-sustaining costs and unused capacity costs

    17. Learning Objective 2 Assign costs to cost pools using a first-stage allocation.

    18.  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools

    19.  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools Direct materials, direct labor, and shipping are excludedbecause Baxter Battery’s existing cost system can directlytrace these costs to products or customer orders.

    20.  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools At Baxter Battery the following distribution of resource consumption across activity cost pools is determined.

    21.  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools Indirect factory wages $6,000,000 Percent consumed by customer orders 30% $1,800,000

    22.  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools Factory equipment depreciation $3,500,000 Percent consumed by customer orders 20% $ 700,000

    23.  Assign Overhead Costs to Activity Cost Pools

    24. Learning Objective 3 Compute activityrates for cost pools.

    25.  Calculate Activity Rates The ABC team determines that Baxter Battery will have these total activities for each activity cost pool . . . • 10,000 customer orders, • 4,000 design changes, • 800,000 machine-hours, • 2,000 customers served. Now the team can compute the individual activity rates by dividing the total cost for each activity by the total activity levels.

    26.  Calculate Activity Rates

    27. Traced Traced Traced Activity–Based Costing at Baxter Battery Direct Materials Direct Labor Shipping Costs Overhead Costs Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers

    28. Activity–Based Costing at Baxter Battery Direct Materials Direct Labor Shipping Costs Overhead Costs First-Stage Allocation CustomerOrders OrderSize Customer Relations Other Design Changes Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers

    29. Activity–Based Costing at Baxter Battery Direct Materials Direct Labor Shipping Costs Overhead Costs First-Stage Allocation CustomerOrders OrderSize Customer Relations Other Design Changes Second-Stage Allocations $/Order $/Change $/MH $/Customer Cost Objects: Products, Customer Orders, Customers Unallocated

    30. Learning Objective 4 Assign costs to a cost object using a second-stage allocation.

    31.  Assigning Overhead to Products Baxter Battery Information • SureStart • Requires no new design resources. • 800,000 batteries ordered with 4,000 separate orders. • Each SureStart requires 36 minutes of machinetime for a total of 480,000 machine-hours. • LongLife • Requires new design resources. • 400,000 batteries ordered with 6,000 separate orders. • 4,000 custom designs prepared. • Each LongLife requires 48 minutes of machinetime for a total of 320,000 machine-hours.

    32.  Assigning Overhead to Products

    33. Assigning Overhead to Customers Let’s take a look at how Baxter Battery’s system works for just one of the 2,000 customers – Acme Auto Parts who placed a total of twelve orders. Note that the four orders for LongLifes required a design change. • Orders • Eight orders for 60 SureStarts per order. • Four orders for 50 LongLifes per order. • Machine-hours • The 480 SureStarts required 288 machine-hours. • The 200 LongLifes required 160 machine hours.

    34. Assigning Overhead to Customers

    35. Learning Objective 5 Use activity-based costing to compute product and customer margins.

    36.  Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The first step in computing product margins is togather each product’s sales and direct cost data.

    37.  Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The second step in computing product margins is toincorporate the previously computed activity-basedcost assignments pertaining to each product.

    38.  Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The third step in computing productmarginsis to deduct each product’sdirect and indirect costs from sales.

    39.  Prepare Management Reports Product Margin Calculations The product margins can be reconciled withthe company’s net operating income as follows:

    40.  Prepare Management Reports Customer Margin Analysis The first step in computing Acme Auto Parts’ customer margin is to gather its sales and direct cost data.

    41.  Prepare Management Reports Customer Margin Analysis The second step is to incorporate Acme Auto Parts’ previously computed activity-based cost assignments.

    42.  Prepare Management Reports Customer Margin Analysis The third step is to compute Acme Auto Parts’ customer margin of $384 by deducting all its direct and indirect costs from its sales.

    43. Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The first step in computing product margins is togather each product’s sales and direct cost data.

    44. Plantwide manufacturing overhead rate $14,000,000 800,000 MH = = $17.50 per machine-hour Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The second step in computing product marginsis to compute the plantwide overhead rate.

    45. 480,000 hours × $17.50 per hour = $8,400,000 Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The third step in computing product margins isallocate manufacturing overhead to each product.

    46. Product Margins Computed Using the Traditional Cost System The fourth step is to actuallycompute the product margins.

    47. Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs The traditional costsystem overcosts theSureStarts and reports a lower productmargin for this product. The traditional costsystem undercosts theLongLifes and reportsa higher productmargin for this product.

    48. Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs There are three reasons why thereported product margins for the twocosting systems differ from one another. Traditional costing allocates all manufacturing overhead to products. ABC costing only assigns manufacturing overhead costs consumed by products to those products.

    49. Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs There are three reasons why thereported product margins for the twocosting systems differ from one another.  Traditional costing allocates all manufacturing overhead costs using a volume-related allocation base. ABC costing also uses non-volume related allocation bases.

    50. Differences Between ABC and Traditional Product Costs There are three reasons why thereported product margins for the twocosting systems differ from one another.  Traditional costing disregards selling and administrative expenses because they are assumed to be period expenses. ABC costing directly traces shipping costs to products and includes nonmanufacturing overhead costs caused by products in the activity cost pools that are assigned to products.