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Products, Services & Brands. Chapter: 8 Lec: 7b. Product Line Decisions. Product Line

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product line decisions
Product Line Decisions
  • Product Line

A group of products that are closely related because they function in a similar manner, are sold to the same customer groups , are marked through the same types of outlets, or fall within given price ranges

  • A company can expand its product line in two ways

- Line filling (add more items in line)

- Line stretching (upwards/ downwards)

e.g. Hotel one, PC, Marriot (downwards)

Tata Indigo, upper market car (upwards)

product mix decisions
Product Mix Decisions
  • Product Mix

The set of all product lines and items that a particular seller offers for sale

- Product mix has four dimensions

1- Width

2- Length

3- Depth

4- Consistency

product mix decisions1
Product Mix Decisions
  • Width

The number of different product lines the company caries

e.g. Sony ( TV, play station, camera)

  • Length

Total number of items a company carries in its product line

e.g. digital cameras, camcorders

  • Depth

The number of versions offered of each product in the line

e.g. Flat panel, rear projection, High/low resolution

  • Consistency

How closely related the product line are

e.g. Distribution, stores availability

branding strategy building strong brands
Branding Strategy: Building Strong Brands
  • Brand Equity

The differential effect that knowing the brand name has on customer response to the product or its marketing

- brand vary in the amount of power

e.g. Song, Nike, Disney, McDonalds

  • Customer perception dimensions

1) Differentiation (what makes the brand stand out)

2) Relevance (how it meets consumer needs)

3) Knowledge (how much consumer know about the brand)

4) Esteem (How do consumer respect the brand)

building strong brands
Building Strong Brands

Brand Positioning



Beliefs and values

Brand Sponsorship

Manufacturer’s brand Private Brand Licensing Co-branding

Brand Development

Line extensions

Brand extensions


New brands

Brand name selection

Selection Protection

building strong brands1
Building Strong Brands
  • Brand Positioning

e.g. Volvo

attributes: features of the car

benefit: what you’ll get out of them (safety)

Belief and values: e.g. Marriot- Luxury rooms

building strong brands2
Building Strong Brands
  • Brand Name Selection

- can add to a product’s success

- best suited for product category

- should be protected

building strong brands3
Building Strong Brands
  • Brand Sponsorship

There are four sponsorship options

- National Brand: sell under your own name (Sony Bravia)

- Private Brand: (distributor brand)

- Licensed brands

- Co-brand

brand sponsorship
Brand Sponsorship
  • National Brands Vs Store Brands

Store Brands

A brand created and owned by a reseller of a product or service

e.g. HKB, Al-Fateh

- Retailer can select the best place in store for their brands

- Select a lower price as compared to national brands

brand sponsorship1
Brand Sponsorship


  • Takes years and millions to create a brand
  • Some companies license names/ symbols for a fee
  • Toys based on Tv characters
  • Characters on clothes, bags etc.
brand sponsorship2
Brand Sponsorship
  • Co-branding

The practice of using the established brand names of two different companies on the same product

- you can bring new value for your customers

e.g. Marriot and Barclays

Nike and ipod

- Complex legal contracts and licenses

“Giving away your product is like giving away your child – you want to make sure everything is perfect”

brand development
Brand Development
  • A company has four choices when it comes to developing brands

Line extension

Extending an existing brand name to new forms, colors, sizes, ingredients, or flavors of an existing product category

e.g. Bata, regular shoes, sports shoes, sandals etc.

- Geo news, geo super, geo entertainment

-An overextended brand name might lose its meaning

- Sale of an extension might come at the expense of other item

brand development1
Brand Development
  • Brand Extensions

Extending an existing brand name to new product categories

e.g. Maggie Noodles, Maggie soup, Maggie Ketchup

- Ponds tooth paste, Heinz pet food met early death

- Extension may confuse the image of the product

brand development2
Brand Development
  • Multibrands

Companies introduce additional brands in the same category

- Each brand entertains a different segment

- Each brand may obtain a small marketplace

brand development strategies
Brand Development Strategies

Product Category



Line extension

Brand Extension


Brand Name


New Brands