Morphology. The wordland. What is morphology ?. the study of the structure and content of word forms the part of linguist ic that deals with the study of words, their internal structure .
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Göz+ cü+ ler
Stem 1st morph. 2nd morph.
unit of grammaticalfunction
Organ of form NsfromNs not meangözanymore
Affixation: theattachmentprocess of a boundmorphemetoanothermorpheme.
Stem: the root or roots of a word, together with any derivational affixes, to which inflectional affixes are added.Theyaremorphologicallycomplex.
contentmorpheme: derived N from a N having a meaningdifferentfromthat of thestem
Derivation: a process of formingnewwordsbyusingboundmorphemes
Derivationalmorphemes: themorphemeswhichaddtoorchangethemeaning of a stemwordorthesyntacticclass of it.
-ICI: a derivationalmorphemeformingNsfromNs
Deverbal nominal stems: V > N
Deverbalverbalstems: V > V
Denominal nominal stems: N > N
Denominalverbalstems: N > V
Considerthesemanticdifferences –(I)ş provides
(3) Bir kiloluk, üç saatlik: expressweight, length, capacity, value, price.
* Bu sınıf öğrenci hep öğretmen kız.
temporalstructure of event
Thesemorphemesdid not createnewwords but mark grammaticalrelations: inflectionalmorphemes.
Number, case, tense andagreementmarkersin Turkishareinflectionalmorphemes.
Theinfinitive form: koş-uş-tur-mak
Whatprecedes –mAk: koş-uş-tur
Whyareaandcarepossible but not b?
! ConsideringthatTurkish is an agglunativelanguage, theorder of morphemes in a sentence is fixedandeachmorpheme is used in thepositionspecifiedfor it.
b)Ungrammatical: causative-DIr is usedafter -lAş
! Inflectionfollowsderivation as derivationalmorphemesaremorefirmlyattachedthaninflectionalones:
Thosemarkingnumber, possession, case
Eg: çocuk- lar-ın- a
root-voice-negation-tense/aspect/modality-copular marker-person marker-DIr
!Theyalsocombine in a predictableorder.
(causative) + (negation) + tense + person
In (8a), alltheprecedingstemvowelsarefront
In (8b), alltheprecedingstemvowelsarenonfront
! Front vowels + [-ler]
Backvowels + [-lar]
Conditionedbytheroundingharmony, thehighsuffix /i/
Consonantssharevoicingfeature: voicedcon.+/d/ vsvoicelesscon. + /t/