Main Building BlocksCase Study: • Auto Oil I & II in Europe
Section Overview • Auto Oil I • EPEFE Results • Auto Oil II • Facts on Auto Oil II and CAFE • Fuel Quality Evolution in Europe • Conclusions
Introduction to Auto Oil I 1st STEP: review of all data available in literature on the relationship between emissions, fuel properties, and engine technologies – resulted in 1994 report Effect of Fuel Qualities and Related Vehicle Technologies on European Vehicle Emissions. 2nd STEP: EPEFE – European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies – resulted in numerous tests, meetings and work between July 1993 and March 1995 and final report published in 1996. • Auto Oil – new approach in setting environmental legislation with engagement (in a way never tried before) of the experts from the European Commission, industry and consultants in Europe: • to identify which new measures may be required to meet air quality objectives, • to form basis for the environmental legislation to come in force in 2000
Some Facts on EPEFE • tests conducted between July 1993 and March 1995; • industries jointly spent around 11 million ECU; • over 16000 man hours; • fuels tested: • 12 test gasolines in 16 vehicles (octane number, oxygenate, olefins, E150 and RVP were fixed; aromatics, E100 and sulfur were varied); • 16 diesel fuels in 19 LDV and 5 HDV (sulfur and mono-aromatics were fixed and cetane number, density, T95 and poly-aromatics were varied); • tested exhaust emissions: CO, NOx, HC, PMs and their composition, individual HCs and their organic species.
EPEFE – General Conclusions Both fuels and engine technologies are important determinants of motor vehicle emission level Relationships among fuel properties/engine technologies/exhaust emissions exist and are complex changes in a given fuel property may lower the emissions of one pollutant but may increase those of another (e.g. decreasing aromatics content in gasoline lowers CO and HC emissions but increases NOx emissions)
EPEFE – Detailed Conclusions Effects of Sulfur on Gasoline Exhaust Emissions Notes: ECE – urban driving sequence; EUDC – extra urban driving sequence; Sulfur levels: 18 ppm, 95 ppm, 182 ppm, 382 ppm Source: IFQC compiled from European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies, ACEA and Europia, 2011
EPEFE – Detailed Conclusions Effects of Aromatics/E100 on Gasoline Exhaust Emissions Source: IFQC compiled from European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies, ACEA and Europia, 2011
EPEFE – EetailedConclusions Diesel Properties and Effect on Exhaust Emissions Source: IFQC compiled from European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies, ACEA and Europia, 2011
Results Incorporated in the Legislation • Directive on tighter specifications for pollutant emissions from vehicles – euro 3 and 4 (directive 98/69/EC) • Directive on fuel quality requirements (directive 98/70/EC) • Together these measures were to: • Reduce NOxemissions by 65% by 2010 compared with 1995, • Reduce VOC, CO, PM emissions by 70% by 2010 compared with 1995 and • Establish a basis for a continuation of the Auto Oil 1.
Facts on Auto Oil II and CAFE • Work undertaken between 1997 and 2000; • Contributor to Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) which concluded that transport sector: • Is responsible for 43% of total NOx emissions and 27% of total VOC emissions in 2002, • Accounted for 29% of total PM2.5 emissions in 2000, 15% of acidifying substances in 2001, • Is the dominant source of ozone precursors and accounted for 36% of all ozone precursors in 2001. • Parameters studied: • Gasoline and diesel sulfur reduction to 50 ppm and to 10 ppm in longer timeframe, • Increasing fuel economy (CO2 issue), • Use on on-board diagnostic in diesel engines.
Results Incorporated in the Legislation Basis for euro 5 and 6 emission standards for LDV – eventually incorporated in Regulation no 715/2007 2nd directive on fuel quality requirements Directive 2003/17/EC
Fuel Quality Evolution in Europe AUTO OIL 1 Climate Change and Energy AUTO OIL 2
Conclusions • Whatever fuel standards are chosen by any country they must relate to the emission standards of the cars on the market • It makes no sense to adopt EU vehicle emission standards with U.S. spec fuels, or vice versa • Mixing up different vehicle emission standards with non-matching fuel standards would lead to long term problems • Choose one complete, ‘matching’ set of Fuel + Emission Standards based on the car population types together with desired air quality levels