hydatidiform molar pregnancy n.
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Hydatidiform Molar Pregnancy. Defined as proliferation and degeneration of the chorion A benign neoplasm of the chorion The embryo fails to develop in most cases Occurs in 1 of 2000 pregnancies More often in low socioeconomic groups with low protein diets

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Defined as proliferation and degeneration of the chorion

  • A benign neoplasm of the chorion
  • The embryo fails to develop in most cases
  • Occurs in 1 of 2000 pregnancies
  • More often in low socioeconomic groups with low protein diets
  • More often is the younger or older mother
symptoms of a molar pregnancy
Symptoms of a Molar Pregnancy
  • Uterus expands faster and reaches landmarks earlier
  • More morning sickness
  • Earlier signs of PIH
  • Vaginal bleeding in the 4th month
  • Discharge with grape-like vesicles
treatment and nursing care with molar pregnancy
Treatment and nursing care with Molar Pregnancy
  • A d & c is done to evacuate the mole
  • Follow-up care is very important
  • Tends to be carcinogenic—choriocarcinoma
  • Recommend no future pregnancies for at least a year
  • Evaluate HCG levels closely
  • Chest x-rays at interverals
incompetent cervix
Incompetent Cervix
  • Cervix dilates prematurely, painlessly, when the fetus is of sufficient weight to put pressure on the cervix.
  • Signs/symptoms:
  • mucousy, pink discharge
  • ROM
  • Onset of contractions
  • Birth of the fetus

Treatment/Care --Incompetent Cervix

  • Cervical circlage done between 4-6 months
  • Earliest time maybe 14 weeks
  • Success rate as good as 80 %
  • Must be removed prior to the onset of labor
  • Loss of a pregnancy during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, at a time that the fetus cannot survive.
  • Such a loss may be involuntary (a "spontaneous" abortion), or it may be voluntary ("induced" or "elective" abortion).
  • Miscarriage is the term used for spontaneous abortion, an unexpected 1st trimester pregnancy loss.
categories of abortions
Categories of Abortions

These include:

  • Threatened
  • Inevitable
  • Incomplete
  • Complete
  • Septic
facts about abortion
Facts about abortion
  • Such losses are common, occurring in about one out of every 6 pregnancies.
  • These losses are unpredictable and unpreventable.
  • About 2/3 are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
  • About 30% are caused by placental malformations and are similarly not treatable.
  • The remaining miscarriages are caused by miscellaneous factors but are not usually associated with:
  • Minor trauma
  • Intercourse
  • Medication
  • Too much activity

Following a miscarriage, the chance of having another miscarriage with the next pregnancy is about 1 in 6.

habitual abortion
Habitual abortion
  • Habitual abortion, recurrent miscarriage or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is the occurrence of three or more pregnancies that end in miscarriage of the fetus, usually before 20 weeks of gestation.
  • RPL affects about 0.34%of women who conceive.
  • Anatomical conditions:
  • Uterine conditions
  • Cervical conditions
  • Chromosomal disorders
  • Endocrine disorders
  • Immune factors
  • Lifestyle factors
  • Infection
  • Spontaneous abortion (also known as miscarriage) is the expulsion of an embryo or fetus due to accidental trauma or natural causes before approximately the 22nd week of gestation; the definition by gestational age varies by country.[
  • Most miscarriages are due to incorrect replication of chromosomes; they can also be caused by environmental factors
  • A pregnancy can be intentionally aborted in many ways. The manner selected depends chiefly upon the gestational age of the embryo or fetus, which increases in size as the pregnancy progresses.
  • Specific procedures may also be selected due to legality, regional availability, and doctor-patient preference. Reasons for procuring induced abortions are typically characterized as either therapeutic or elective.
induced abortion
Induced abortion
  • Therapeutic abortion when it is performed to:
  • save the life of the pregnant woman
  • preserve the woman's physical or mental health
  • terminate pregnancy that would result in a child born with a congenital disorder that would be fatal or associated with significant morbidity or selectively reduce the number of fetuses to lessen health risks associated with multiple pregnancy.
induced abortion1
Induced abortion
  • An elective abortion:

When it is performed at the request of the woman "for reasons other than maternal health or fetal disease.

threatened abortion
Threatened Abortion
  • A threatened abortion means the woman has experienced symptoms of bleeding or cramping.
  • At least one-third of all pregnant women will experience these symptoms.
  • Half will abort spontaneously.
  • The other half , bleeding and crampingwill disappear and the remainder of the pregnancy will be normal.
  • These women who go on to deliver their babies at full term can be reassured that the bleeding in the first trimester will have no effect on the baby and that you expect a full-term, normal, healthy baby.
threatened abortion features
Threatened abortion(Features)
  • History Mild vaginal bleeding.

 No abdominal pain or mild abdominal pain 

  • Examination Good general condition.

 The cervix is closed

 The uterus is usually the correct size for date

  • U/S which is essential for the diagnosis Showed the presence of fetal heart activity
threatened abortion management
Threatened abortion(Management)
  • ReassuranceIf fetal heart activity is present, > 90% of cases will be progressed satisfactorily
  • Advice: Decrease physical activity (bed rest is of no therapeutic value) avoid intercourse
  • Hormones i.e. Progesterone & hCG Which are used in the first trimester to support pregnancy, (but they are of no proven value)
  • Anti- D:An adequate dose of anti-D should be given to all Rh –ve,non-immunised patients, whose husbands are Rh +ve
  • ANC as high risk patients

Because those patients are liable to late pregnancy complications such as APH and preterm labour .

inevitable abortion
Inevitable abortion
  • A condition in which:
  • Vaginal bleeding has been profuse
  • The cervix has become dilated
  • Abortion will invetably occur.
inevitable and incomplete abortions features
Inevitable and incomplete abortions(Features)
  • History
    • Heavy vaginal bleeding.
      • with no passage of products conception (inevitable)
      • with the passage of products of conception (incomplete abortion)
    • Severe lower abdominal pain which follows the bleeding
inevitable and incomplete abortions features1
Inevitable and incomplete abortions(Features)
  • Examinations
    • Poor general condition.
    • The cervix is dilating and products of conception may be passing trough the os
    • The uterus may be the correct size for date (inevitable abortion) or small for date (incomplete abortion)
  • U/S  Fetal heart activity may or may not present in inevitable abortion or retained products of conception ( RPOC ) in incomplete abortion
inevitable and incomplete abortions management
Inevitable and incomplete abortions(management)
  • CBC , blood grouping , XM 2 units of blood
  • Resuscitation large IV line, fluids & blood transfusion
  • Oxytoxic drugs Ergometrine 0.5 mg IM + Oxytocin infusion (20-40 units in 500 cc saline)
  • Evacuation & curettage.
  • Post-abortion management.
complete abortion features
Complete abortion(Features)
  • History
    • Heavy vaginal bleeding which has been stopped.
    • lower abdominal pain which follows the bleeding which has been stopped.
  • Examination
    • The cervix is closed
  • U/S
    • showed empty uterine cavity or PROP
complete abortion management
Complete abortion(Management)
  • - Evacuation & curettage in the presence of RPOC.
  • Post-abortion management.
missed abortion
Missed abortion
  • Retention of products for several weeks
  • No increase in fundal height
  • Absence of FHT
  • Regressions of signs of pregnancy
  • Loss of wight
missed abortion features
Missed abortion(Features)
  • Most of missed abortions are diagnosed accidentally during routine U/S in early pregnancy .

In some cases there may be a history of :

    • Episodes of mild vaginal bleeding
    • Regression of early symptoms of pregnancy .
    • Stop of fetal movements after 20 weeks gestation.
  • Examination
    • The uterus may be small for date
missed abortion features1
Missed abortion(Features)
  • U/S (which is essential for diagnosis ) diagnosed if two ultrasound ( T/V or T/A) at least 7days apart showed an embryo of > 7 weeks gestation ( CRL > 6mm in diameter and gestational sac > 20 mm in diameter ) with no evidence of heart activity .
missed abortion management
Missed abortion(Management)
  • CBC , blood grouping
  • Platelets count, to exclude the risk of DIC

NB : DIC does not occur before 5 weeks of missed abortion or IUFD and if occurred will be of mild grade

missed abortion management1
Missed abortion(Management)
  • Options of treatment
    • Conservative treatment: if left alonespontaneous expulsion will occur
    • Surgical evacuation of the uterus; by D & C:

Indicated in 1st trimester missed abortion

    • Medical termination of pregnancy: by Misoprostol (PGE1)

Cytotec: Indicated in 1st & 2nd trimesters missed abortions.

      • Cytotec vaginal ( is the best) or oral tab. 200 μg, 2 tab/ 3 hrs/ up to 5 doses daily, which can be repeated next day if there is no response in the first day
      • Subsequent surgical evacuation is needed in cases of RPOC
      • The main side effects of cytotec are nausea, vomiting and fever. 
  • Post-abortion management.
anembryonic pregnancy blighted ovum
Anembryonic pregnancy (Blighted ovum)
  • It is due to an early death and resorption of the embryo with the persistence of the placental tissue
  • It is diagnosed if two ultrasound ( T/V or T/A) at least 7 days apart showed after 7 weeks of gestation i.e. gestational sac > 20mm , an empty gestational sac with no fetal echoes seen .
  • It is treated in a similar way to missed abortion .
septic abortion
Septic abortion
  • Spontaneous or induced termination of a pregnancy in which the mother's life may be threatened because of the invasion of germs into the endometrium, myometrium, and beyond.
  • The woman requires immediate and intensive care
  • Massive antibiotic therapy
  • Evacuation of the uterus
  • Emergency hysterectomy to prevent death from overwhelming infection and septic shock.
complications of abortion
Complications of abortion
  • Haemorrhage .
  • Complication related to surgical evacuation ie E&C and D&C.
    • Uterine perforation- which may lead to rupture uterusin the subsequent pregnancy.
    • Cervical tear &excessive cervical dilatation – which may lead to cervical incompetence.
    • Infection – which may lead to infertility & Asherman's syndrome.
    • Excessive curettage – which may lead to Adenomyosis
  •  Rh- iso immunisation  if the anti –D is not given or if the dose is inadequate .
  • Psychological trauma .
post abortion management
Post - abortion management

In cases of incomplete, inevitable, complete, missed & septic abortions

  • Support: from the husband, family& obstetric staff
  • Anti D– to all Rh –ve, nonimmunised patients, whose husbands are Rh+ve
  • Counseling & explanation:
    • Contraception (Hormonal, IUCD, Barrier) Should start immediately after abortion if the patient choose to wait , because ovulation can occur 14 days after abortion and so pregnancy can occur before the expected next period .
post abortion management1
Post - abortion management
  • Counseling & explanation:
    • When can try again :
    • Best to wait for 3 months before trying again . This time allow to regulate cycles and to know the LMP, to give folic acid, and to allow the patient to be in the best shape (physically and emotionally) for the next pregnancy
    • Why has it happened
    • In the fiIn the majority of cases there is no obvious cause
    • In the first trimester abortion , the most common cause is fetal chromosomal abnormality
post abortion management2
Post - abortion management
  • Counseling & explanation:
    • Can it happen again
    • As the commonest cause is the fetal chromosomal abnormality which is not a recurrent cause , so the chance of successful pregnancy next time in the absence of obvious cause is very high even after 2 or 3 abortions
    • Not to feel guilty  as it is extremely unlikely that anything the patient did can cause abortion
    • No evidence that intercourse in early pregnancy is harmful
    • No evidence that bed rest will prevent it ..
recurrent abortion
Recurrent abortion

Definition :

  • Is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions
  • It may presented clinically as any of other types of abortions .

Types :

  • Primary : All pregnancies have ended in loss
  • Secondary : One pregnancy or more has proceeded to viability(>24 weeks gestation) with all others ending in loss

Incidence :

  • occurs in about 1% of women of reproductive age .
recurrent abortion1
Recurrent abortion


  • Idiopathic recurrent abortion, in about 50%, in which no cause can be found .
  • The known causes include the followings :
    • Chromosomal disorders:
      • Fetal chromosomal abnormalities & structural abnormalities
      • Parental balanced translocation
  • Anatomical disorders:
  • Cervical incompetence: →congenital and aquired
  • Uterine causes: → submucous fibroids, uterine anomalies & Asherman’s syndrome
recurrent abortion2
Recurrent abortion


  • Medical disorders:
  • Endocrine disorders : diabetes , thyroid disorders , PCOS & corpus luteum insufficiency .
  • Immunological disorders : Anticardiolipin syndrome & SLE.
  • Thrombophilia: congenital deficiency of Protein C&S and antithrombin III, & presence of factor V leiden.
      • Infections
          • ToRCH - CMV may be a cause of recurrentabortion, but ToRH are not causes of recurrent abortion.
        • Genital tract infection e.g Bacterial vaginosis
    • Rh – isoimmunization
recurrent abortion3
Recurrent abortion

Diagnosis :

  • History:
    • Previous abortions : gestational age and place of abortions & fetal abnormalities.
    • Medical history : DM , thyroid disorders, PCOS, autoimmune diseases & thrombophilia.
  • Examination :
  • General : weight , thyroid & hair distribution
  • Pelvic: cervix ( length & dilatation ) and uterine size.
recurrent abortion4
Recurrent abortion

Diagnosis :

  • investigations:
      • Investigations for medical disorders:
  • Blood grouping & indirect Coomb’s test in Rh –ve women
  • Endocrinal screening: Blood sugar , TFT & LH /FSH ratio
  • Immunological screening: Anti anticardiolipine antibodies & lupus inhibitor.
  • Thrombophilia screening: Protein C & S, antithrombin III levels, factor V leiden, APTT and PT.
  • Infection screening
        • High vaginal & cervical swabs
        • ToRCH profile ( which scientifically is not necessary )
recurrent abortion5
Recurrent abortion

Diagnosis :

  • investigations:
      • Investigations for anatomical disorders:
  • TV/US: fibroids, cervical incompetence & PCOS.
  • Hystroscopy or HSG, fibroids, cervical incompetence, uterine anomalies & Asherman's syndrome
  • Investigations for chromosomal disorders:
  • Parental karyotyping: Parental balanced translocation.
  • Fetal karyotyping: Fetal chromosomal anomalies.
recurrent abortion6
Recurrent abortion


  • in idiopathic recurrent abortion.

With support and good antenatal care , the chance of successful spontaneous pregnancy is about 60-70%

  • Support : from husband, family & obstetric staff.
  • Advice :stop smoking & alcohol intake, decrease physical activity
  • Tender loving care
  • Drug therapy
        • Progesterone & hCG: start from the luteal phase & up to 12 weeks.
    • Low dose aspirin ( 75 mg/day ) start from the diagnosis of pregnancy & up to 37 weeks
    • LMWH (20-40 mg/day) start from the diagnosis of fetal heart activity & up to 37 ws
recurrent abortion7
Recurrent abortion


  • In the presence of a cause treatment is directed to control the cause
  • Endocrine disorders
      • Control DM and thyroid disorders before pregnancy
      • Ovulation induction drugs , ovarian drilling or IVF in PCOS.
      • Progesterone or hCG in corpus luteum insufficiency .
  • :In anti-cardiolipin syndrome:
      • Low dose aspirin ( 75 mg/day ) & prednisilone ( 20-30 mg / day), starting when pregnancy is diagnosed till 37 weeks.
      • These drugs are not teratogenic.
recurrent abortion8
Recurrent abortion


  • In thrombophilia:
    • Low dose aspirin ( 75 mg/day) starting when pregnancy is diagnosed and low molecular weight heparin ie LMWH ( 20-40 mg/day) starting when fetal heart activity diagnosed & to continue both till 37 weeks .
  • In uterine disorders
      • Cervical cerclage in cervical incompetence, best time at the 14 weeks of pregnancy.
      • Myomectomy in submucus fibroid, excision of uterine septum in septate & subseptate uterus & adhesolysis in Asherman's syndrome.
recurrent abortion9
Recurrent abortion


  • In infection:: treatment of the genital tract infection.
  • In Rhisoimmunization: Repeated intrauterine transfusion
  • In parental balanced translocation
      • Explain the risk of fetal chromosomal disorders ( about 30% )
      • Encourage to try again or adoption.