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Genetic Code and Translation. Outline. Concepts and Terms related to genetic code Wobble Degeneracy isoaccepting Translation prokaryote eukaryotes. Amino Acid. Transfer RNA. ribosome. Genetic Code Table 1968. Wobble. Degeneracy & mRNA. Isoaccepting & tRNAs.

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Concepts and Terms related to genetic code
    • Wobble
    • Degeneracy
    • isoaccepting
  • Translation
    • prokaryote
    • eukaryotes
slide3

Amino Acid

Transfer RNA

ribosome

slide4

Genetic Code Table

1968

Wobble

Degeneracy & mRNA

slide5

Isoaccepting & tRNAs

Different tRNAs accept same amino acid!

slide6

We will focus our discussion of translation as a “Nonoverlapping Code”

mRNA sequences

animation of prokaryotes translation
Animation of Prokaryotes Translation

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter14/animations.html

steps of translation
Steps of Translation
  • 1. Binding of amino acids to tRNA
  • 2. Initiation
  • 3. Elongation
  • 4. Termination
  • 5. Peptide Release
  • 6. Protein modification
slide10

It takes two steps to “charge” the tRNA

Aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase

(proofreading activity)

Amino acid+ATP

tRNA is charged

slide12

Bacterial Initiation

Step 2: Initiation of Translation

IF3

slide15

Kozak

Eukaryotic Initiation

key differences

slide16

3. ELONGATION: look at the “EPA” sites

Peptidyl transferase

(ribozyme of large subunit)

slide19

UAA

UAG

UGA

Steps 4 and 5:

Termination and Release

slide20

6.

Lipoprotein

Glycoprotein

antibiotics and translation
Tetracyclines

Chloramphenicol

Streptoymycin

Erythromycin

Bind and block bacterial ribosomes “A” site

Binds to large subunit; blocks peptide formation

Blocks initiation step

Blocks translocation step

Antibiotics and Translation
slide23

For your review:

Summary of important steps involved in translation

slide24

1.

2.

eukaryotic translation is very similar except
Eukaryotic translation is very similar except:
  • More IF’s
  • Kozak sequence
  • 5’CAP
  • 3’poly-A tail