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Bahan Kajian MK. PSDALH . MANAJEMEN AIR HUJAN RAIN-GARDEN TAMAN HUJAN. Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub.nop2013. Maintain & replace infrastructure. Infrastructure In place some time Pipers clog Impede storm water flow Open ditches gradually fill Vacuum and water jet trucks Replace with BMP.

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slide1

BahanKajian MK. PSDALH

MANAJEMEN AIR HUJAN

RAIN-GARDEN

TAMAN HUJAN

Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub.nop2013

maintain replace infrastructure
Maintain & replace infrastructure
  • Infrastructure
  • In place some time
  • Pipers clog
  • Impede storm water flow
  • Open ditches gradually fill
  • Vacuum and water jet trucks
  • Replace with BMP

https://www.facingthefuture.org/Curriculum/PreviewandBuyCurriculum/tabid/550/List/1/ProductID/28/Default.aspx#.UpsUGCdRWho

improve stream water quality
Improve stream water quality
  • Streams impaired
  • Streams may not be suitable for certain aquatic life/human recreation
  • Monitoring/research useful-aid in stream quality
  • BMP. Bio retention area, debris catchments, bank restoration
  • Improve water quality

http://ccsummerresearch.blogs.wm.edu/2013/05/01/7444/

bmp improvement
BMP improvement

Movement of water through a detention pond-wetlands system(Martin and Smoot, 1986)

  • Restoration
  • Habitat

http://environment.fhwa.dot.gov/ecosystems/ultraurb/3fs5.asp

what is an impervious surface
What is an impervious surface?
  • Rainwater cannot infiltrate
  • More water volume-runoff into storm drain
  • Storm water fee
  • Median impervious area of single family residential propertied 100-200 m2

http://iowacedarbasin.org/runoff/showMan.php?c1=2E-1

what is goal of storm water fee
What is goal of storm water fee?

Infiltrasi permukaan dapat dicapai melalui penggunaan strip penyangga rumput, sengkedan bervegetasi, dan sistem perkerasan berpori.

Sistem infiltrasi seperti parit resapan, cekungan infiltrasi, dan zone bioretention (termasuk taman hujan) yang dirancang khusus untuk menangkap volume limpasan hujandan transfer langsung ke profil tanah.

Beberapa praktik yang terintegrasi, seperti restorasi kualitas tanah dan lansekap, dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kapasitas infiltrasi tanah perkotaan. Sebuah fasilitasinfiltrasi dirancang untuk menangkap volume limpasan air hujan, menahan, dan meresapkanseluruh atau sebagian air tersebut ke dalam tanah.

  • Maintain water quality
  • Allow city to comply – federal-state regulations-unfunded mandate
  • Flood damage reduction/drainage
  • Long term maintenance

http://iowacedarbasin.org/runoff/showMan.php?c1=2E-1

what is goal of storm water fee1
What is goal of storm water fee?

Infiltrasi air hujanmemiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan. Keuntungan dari infiltrasi mencakup pengendalian kuantitas air dan pengendalian kualitas air.Kontrol kuantitas air dapat terjadi dengan menangkap dan menahanaliran permukaan dan infiltrasi air ke dalam tanah, mengurangi volume air yang dibuang langsung ke sungai.

SistemInfiltrasi dapat dirancang untuk menangkap volume air hujan (volume & kualitas air) dan meresapkanair ini ke dalam tanah selama beberapa jam atau hari.

Infiltrasi dapat memberikan manfaat sekunder dengan meningkatkan mengisi ulang akuifer dan meningkatkan aliran dasar sungai di dekatnya.

  • Protect water supply
  • Stream restoration
  • BMP-road construction
  • Education for schools
  • Workshops for better water quality

http://iowacedarbasin.org/runoff/showMan.php?c1=2E-1

what can you do for clean water
What can you do for clean water?

Adabeberapapraktik infiltrasi:

Parit infiltrasi

Cekungan infiltrasi

Daerah Bioretention (dan taman hujan)

Restorasi kualitas tanahasli lansekap

  • Conserve water
  • Keep grass clipping out of stream
  • Keep restaurant and business waste away from rain
what can you do for clean water1
What can you do for clean water?

Faktor-faktor yang mengontrol laju infiltrasi dan kapasitasinfiltrasi:

Tutupan vegetasi, perkembangan akar, dan kandunganbahanorganik

Kadar air

Struktur tanah dan tekstur

Porositas dan permeabilitas

BobotisiTanah dan pemadatan

Slope, posisi landscape, dan topografi

  • Use min herbicides/fertilizers & keep off paved surfaces
  • Pick up pet waste
  • Report water pollution
apa saja yang digunakan untuk mengelola air hujan di perkotaan
Apasaja yang digunakanuntukmengelola air hujandiperkotaan?

Typical Permeable Pavement Design

Gutters for roof runoff

Surface drainage ditches and an underground drainage system.

Ditches or tiles direct water to a central basin.

Permeable pavement

…http://www.daygroup.co.uk/sustainable-urban-drainage-systems.php

permeable paving in sustainable urban drainage systems suds
Permeable paving in sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)

Paving permeabel atau porusdapat digunakan sebagai saranakontrol limpasan air hujandijalan-jalan kecil, trotoar, parkirmobil dan taman-tamankota.

Saranapengendalianlimpasan air hujandiperkotaanadalah sistem drainase perkotaan yang berkelanjutan (SUDS) yang berhubungan dengan run-off, dandenganpermukaan lahantempatjatuhnyahujan.Air hujanmelewati permukaanlahan, meresapmelalui celah-celah diantara individu paving atau bahan permeabel seperti kerikil atau aspal porus, menjebak polutan di dalamtanah.

Dalamtanah,bahanpolutan akanmengalamudegradasidandekomposisioleh proses alami yang terjadidalamtanah.

http://www.netregs.org.uk/library_of_topics/water/sustainable_urban_drain_system/permeable_paving_in_suds.aspx

permeable paving in sustainable urban drainage systems suds1
Permeable paving in sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)

Dengan menggunakan permeabel paving dapat dicegah akumulasiair di permukaan kedap air, menghindari genangan air di tempat parkir.Sejumlah besar air dapat disimpan dalamtanahdi bawah permukaan.

Hal ini mengurangi kemungkinan banjir.

http://www.netregs.org.uk/library_of_topics/water/sustainable_urban_drain_system/permeable_paving_in_suds.aspx

apa saja masalah yang dihadapi
Apasajamasalah yang dihadapi?

Linkages between urban runoff and water quality issues.

  • Petrochemicals and metals are washed off with storm runoff water.
  • Rain water and runoff water can dissolve the limestone bedrock.

…http://www.ec.gc.ca/inre-nwri/default.asp?lang=En&n=235D11EB-1&offset=12&toc=show

dimana lokasinya rain garden
Dimanalokasinya Rain-garden ?
  • Rain Gardens are near the campus greenhouse (GH)
  • Rain Gardens are near the Horticulture Center (HC)
  • Rain Gardens are in the drainage ditches.

… http://www.architectityourself.com/what-is-a-rain-garden/

surface drain system being retrofitted with rain gardens rg
Surface Drain system being retrofitted with Rain Gardens (RG)

Green house

Commons-underground drain line

RG 1 & 2

RG3

Basin

alternative ways of dealing with runoff
Alternative ways of dealing with runoff?

Perbaikankualitas air hujandapat dicapai kalaubahanpolutan tersaringpadasaatair hujanmerembes melalui berbagai lapisan tanah.

Ketika air bergerak melalui tanah, partikel dapat diikatolehpartikeltanah. Selain itu, mikroorganisme dalam tanah dapat mengurangipolutan organik yang terkandung dalam air hujan.

  • Direct water to a naturalized setting.
  • Minimize runoff of average rain by 90%, allowing rain garden (plants and soil)
  • Filter pollutants-sediments, dissolved ions- before percolates into groundwater.
what is a decentralized runoff management system
What is a decentralized runoff management system?

Urban runoff source areas and drainage alternatives (Pitt 1986).

  • Runoff water directed into rain gardens
  • Plant canopy and soil can store excess water.
  • Rain Garden, shallow basin allows runoff water to percolate through the soil and transpire through the plants.

http://rpitt.eng.ua.edu/Class/Computerapplications/Module4/MainCAM4.html…

how does a decentralized system work
How does a decentralized system work?

Two ways:

1) Plant canopy (trees, shrubs, un-mowed grasses) A) increase evapo-transpiration

B) reduce water percolation.

2) Rain garden soil is a sponge for

runoff water

surface drain system being retrofitted with rain gardens rg1
Surface Drain system being retrofitted with Rain Gardens (RG)

Greenhouse

Commons-underground drain line

RG 1&2

RG3

Basin

rain garden
Rain Garden

Taman hujan dibangun untuk dapatmenampungdansegerameresapkanlimpasan air hujantersebutkedalamtanah.

Air hujantidakbolehterlalumenggenangditaman-hujan, hal ini untuk melindungi kesehatan tanaman yang tidaktahangenangan air.

spoil piles in background gravel at entrance rain garden
Spoil piles in background-gravel at entrance Rain Garden

Kalauhujanterjadidiperkotaan yang permukaannyapedap air, makadiperlukantaman-hujan yang mampumenampungsebagianlimpasan air hujandanmeresapkannyakedalamtanah.

Hal inimembantumengurangibeban debit runoff yang memasukisaluran drainage kota.

rain garden1
Rain Garden

Taman hujan adalah depresi (cekungan) dangkal yang ditanamidengan tanaman asli yang mengakar kuatdan/ataurumput.

Taman hujaninilokasinya sedekat mungkindengansumber limpasan air hujan, sepertijalan-jalankota.

Taman hujanini akan menangkap limpasan air hujan dan menahanair inidanmeresapkannyakedalamtanah.

…http://www.alabamas13.com/story/22110422/with-all-of-this-rain-how-about-a-rain-garden

rain garden2
Rain Garden
  • Deeper and longer than needed in a residential landscape
  • Why?
  • It had to fit in an existing drainage ditch surrounded by parking lots.

…http://soundbook.soundkeeper.org/chapter_ContentID_212_SectionID_7.htm

how to plan a rain garden
How to Plan a Rain Garden
  • Garden is down slope from the area it is draining.
  • Small rain gardens are easier to maintain than one large rain garden.
  • Garden should be greater than 10 feet from building foundation.

…http://www.alabamas13.com/story/22110422/with-all-of-this-rain-how-about-a-rain-garden

building rain garden placement
Building Rain Garden : Placement

Pollutant deposition and removal at source areas (Pitt 1986).

  • Rain Garden is on the East side of Horticulture Center.
  • Captures water from the graveled lot on the West side of the Horticulture Center.

…http://rpitt.eng.ua.edu/Class/Computerapplications/Module4/MainCAM4.html

other placement considerations
Other Placement Considerations
  • Do not place over a septic system or where water pools more than 5 days.
  • The garden soil should drain well.
  • How a soil drains can be determined by watching the site after a rainfall event
    • Does it drain within 2 to 3 day
    • If not infiltration and percolation rate can be estimated.
  • Clay soil or compacted soil can be amended to improve infiltration and percolation.

what is water infiltration
What is water infiltration?
  • How quickly does water move into a soil?
  • Watch a possible area after a rain fall event.

Infiltrasi mungkin tidak cocokuntukdi daerah-daerah di mana air-tanah merupakan sumber utama air minum, karena potensi migrasi kontaminan.

Hal ini terutama berlaku jika air limpasan berasal dari daerah komersial atau industri, di mana mungkin ada kontaminasi limbahorganik atau logam.

what is the percolation rate
What is the percolation rate?
  • The percolation rate is the time it takes for one inch of water to pass through a soil.
  • The ABAS class used these perc rates:

<60 minutes/inch

60-75 minutes/inch

>75 minutes/inch

  • A good rate for a rain garden is <60 minutes per inch.

how to determine percolation rate by soil texture
How to determine percolation rate by soil texture?
  • Using a post hole digger, dug holes 6 to 8 inches for a shallow basin or 24 to 36 inches for a deep basin.
  • For faster than 60 minutes per inch
    • Excavate soil has a medium or fine textures subsoil
    • Or fine reddish textured subsoil

… http://lowerseletarlearningtrail-2g.blogspot.com/2012/04/abc-learning-trail-lower-seletar.html

how to determine percolation rate by soil texture1
How to determine percolation rate by soil texture?
  • For 60 to 75 minutes per hour
    • Excavated soil is reddish fine textured subsoil to at least 24 inches and yellow clay between 24 to 36
  • For slower than 75 minutes per inch
    • Excavate soil with bed rock within 36 inches
    • or soil having a yellowish, grayish, or blackish fine textured subsoil

uji rasa untuk tekstur tanah
Uji Rasa untukTekstur Tanah
  • Fine texture soils: Sandy clay, Silty clay and clay
  • Medium texture soils: silt loam, loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silty clay loam

… http://conservationdistrict.org/2012/new-rain-garden-fact-sheet-available.html

rain garden ruang sempit
Rain Garden: Ruangsempit

Air hujanmenyebarkeseluruhpermukaantaman-hujandanvegetasimenangkapsedimenkasar

Air hujanmencucipolutandisepanjangjalandanmemasukitaman-hujan

Air hujanmeresapkebawahmelaluimassatanah, sedimenhalusdanpolutanditangkapolehtanah

Air hujan yang bersihdikumpulkandalampipadandisalurkankeperairanbebas

… http://www.urbangardensweb.com/2010/01/29/rain-gardens-for-small-urban-spaces/

building rain garden laju perkolasi
Building Rain Garden : LajuPerkolasi
  • Dug holes to 24 inches, excavated soil in the proposed Rain Garden, was medium textured.
  • 1” gravel in bottom, filled holes with 6” of water and record time to drop one inch. Stuck a tooth pick in the side of the hole for measuring water drop.
  • Measured, 15 minutes per ¼” water drop, or 60 minutes per 1” water.

… http://thedoodlehouse.com/2012/02/28/crushing-on-rain-gardens/

building rain garden sizing
Building Rain Garden: Sizing?
  • The size of the rain garden can be calculated.
    • Residential size: 100 to 300 sq ft
  • The size required to capture surface runoff around the site was determined by observations.
    • E.g. Dimensions: 8 feet x 24 feet by 6 inches deep

finding the area rain garden
Finding the Area Rain Garden
  • If rain garden catch water from a rain spout, use that part of the roof area.
  • Lawns, graveled or paved driveways, additional runoff water for a rain garden.
  • The area to be drained can be multiplied by a size factor to determine area of rain garden.

slide40

Size factors are determined according to the type of soil and the depth of the garden and differ if the garden is <30’ or >30’ from a building

slope relates to the depth of the rain garden
% Slope Relates to the Depth of the Rain Garden
  • For slopes <4%, the garden depth should be 3-5 inches deep.
  • Between 5-7%: 6 to 7 inches deep
  • Between 8-12%: about 8 inches deep
  • For slopes over 12%, a rain garden will take a great deal of fill, another location should be considered.

calculating the slope area of the rain garden
Calculating the Slope & Area of the Rain Garden
  • Drive two stakes about fifteen feet from each other (one uphill, one downhill).
  • Tie a string level to each stake and adjust it to make it level.
  • Measure height difference between the ground and the string in feet, divide difference by the distance between the two stakes.
  • Multiply by 100 to get the percent slope.

defining the shape of the rain garden
Defining the Shape of the Rain Garden
  • Shape should be aesthetic.
  • Recommend, length of the garden be perpendicular to the slope, will catch as much water as possible.
  • Garden should be twice as long as it is wide.
  • Width should be no more than 10-15 feet.

building rain garden digging
Building Rain Garden: Digging
  • Mark the perimeter of the garden.
  • Front end loader was initially used; for residential garden use a garden tiller .
  • District conservationist showed the class how to measure slope with a laser level. It is easy to do with a string and line level.
  • The inlet was higher than the outlet and the bottom of the garden was leveled.

digging a rain garden
Digging a Rain Garden
  • Hammered stakes around the perimeter and ran string level between stakes across the middle of the garden.
  • Dig the bed level at the desired depth with rakes and shovels.
  • Use the removed soil to build a berm on the downhill edge of the garden.
  • Covered channel above and below inlet and outlet with landscape fabric and gravel

building rain garden planting
Building Rain Garden : Planting
  • The Soil Analysis class planted native bushes and perennials.
  • The arrangement was done in a naturalistic fashion using odd number groups.
  • Odd number groups ease future maintenance of the Rain Garden.

planting a rain garden
Planting a Rain Garden
  • Rain garden plants should be tolerant of moist and dry conditions.
  • Commercial landscape plants can be used but consider native plants.
  • Plant density should be higher and more naturalistic looking than commercial type plantings.

building rain garden mulch and rock
Building Rain Garden : Mulch and Rock
  • Placed landscape fabric at the entrance of the Rain Garden.
  • Covered the bottom of the Rain Garden with double-shredded mulch to the desired depth.
  • Covered the landscape fabric at the entrance with river rock.

rain garden3
Rain Garden

Sebuah taman hujan denganvegetasidi daerah perkotaan dapat memperbaikikualitas air dan kenyamananlingkungan sekitarnya.

rain garden specs
Rain Garden - Specs
  • Infiltration Rate
    • 3 inches in 90 minutes
  • Depth
    • 7 inches
  • Materials Used
    • river rock, landscape fabric, recycled concrete (from construction site on campus), native plants.

plants used
Plants Used

River Oats - Chasmanthiumlatifolium

Swamp Milkweed – Ascelpiasincrnata

Red Twig Dogwood - Cornussericea

False Sunflower –Heliopsishelianthoides

Helberd Leaf Rose Mallow – Hibiscus laevis

Inkberry Holly – Ilex glabra

Winterberry Holly – Ilex verticillata

Big Blue Lobelia – Lobelia siphilitica

Common Rush - Juncuseffusus

construction of rain garden after excavation
Construction of Rain Garden - after Excavation

Tanah ditamanhujanharuslonggardan porous, sehinggakemungkinantanahperludiplahsebelumpenanamantanaman.

PenambahanKomposorganik, pasir, vermiculite, danmaterial tanahliatketanahaslinyadapatmemperbaikikualitastanahditaman-hujan.

landscape fabric
Landscape Fabric

Although fabric is beneficial to prevent weeds, it does not allow the rock to settle.

Notice how the fabric and rock washed away due to heavy rain.

landscape fabric correction
Landscape Fabric Correction

We corrected the problem with recycled concrete and rocks to hold the fabric in place and to slow down the water flow.

rain garden lime dust on river rock
Rain Garden: lime dust on river rock

Agar supayataman-hujandapatbekerjadnegansebaik-baiknya, lokasinyaharusditempatdimanalimpasan air hujanmengumpul, atausaluran air drainage.

Untukmemilihtempatterbaik (jikaadapilihan), diperlukanpengamatanlapangansetelahhujanlebat.

in summary
In Summary
  • Environmental problems caused by surface drainage in developed areas can be reduced by changing landscape practices.
  • Limit mowed lawn space and raise mower blade to increases plant canopy.
  • Stacked Rain gardens in the landscape allow excess water to infiltrate the soil in many places before water flows to lowest elevation.

plant lists
Plant Lists

Plant lists will be available on request from:

1. your local extension office

2. Tennessee Master Gardeners

3. web search: rain garden plants

rain garden4
Rain Garden

Vegetasiditaman-hujanharusdapatberadaptasidengankondisitanahbasahdantanahkering.

Tanamanaslibiasanyasangatcocokuntuktaman-hujan, karenamerekamampuberadaptasiterhadapkondisilokal.

Tanamanyang cocokuntuktaman-hujanakanbervariasidarisatudaerahdengandaerahlainnya.

entrance to rain garden
Entrance to Rain Garden

Taman hujan dengantanaman asli, dikawasanpermukiman, dapat mengurangi jumlah polutan yang memasuki badan air terdekat atau saluran drainage kota.

Taman hujan juga dapat mencegah erosi permukaan, dapat mengurangi genangan air, dan menciptakan habitat bagi satwa liar,seperti burung.

Taman hujandapatdiintegrasikandneganRuang Terbuka Hijau Kota

.

rain garden5
Rain Garden

Ada banyak pohon-pohon dan semak-semak yang cocokuntuktaman-hujan, namun sebagian besar tumbuhan iniukurannyaterlalu besar untuk menjadi bagian dari sebuah taman-hujan yangkecil.

Dengan tanaman yang lebih kecil, dan media tanah yang bagus, taman-hujan kecil di ruang perkotaan dapat menjadi saranakeindahankotadankenyamananekologislingkungankota.

…http://www.alabamas13.com/story/22110422/with-all-of-this-rain-how-about-a-rain-garden

fact sheet rain garden design 2
Fact sheet- Rain Garden Design(2)

Who Should Create a Rain Garden?

  • Suitable any land use; Residential, commercial, industrial
  • Place so impervious surfaces drain into depression
  • Grass buffer strip
  • Slows water entering rain garden; Surface filters particulates from runoff
  • Pond area
  • Depression area, stores water; Evaporation; Particulate not filtered to settle to bottom;
  • 6 inch depth; Not pond more than 3-4 days – avoid mosquito breeding
fact sheet rain garden design 4
Fact sheet- Rain Garden Design(4)

Components of a rain garden

  • Mulch/Organic Layer
  • Decomposed organic material; Removes metals; Shredded hardwood mulch
  • Planting Soil
  • Leaf mulch (20%), sandy soil (50%) and 30% top soil; Clay particles adsorb
  • Planting Selection
  • Species that tolerate extremes, perennials
  • Site Considerations
  • Site: Intercept water runoff
  • Bioretention area: 5 to 7% of drainage area (example ¼ roof area)