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Bahan Kajian MK. Pembangunan Berkelanjutan. MENUJU PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN. Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub.des.2013. Sustainable Development. Hierarchical system A four-tier system was adopted for the evaluation of sustainable development within the community. Its components were:

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BahanKajian MK. Pembangunan Berkelanjutan






Hierarchical system

A four-tier system was adopted for the evaluation of sustainable development within the community. Its components were:

Principles of sustainable development;

Criteria of sustainable development;

Indicators derived from criteria;

Verifiers to measure specific strategic actions, whose qualitative or quantitative values allow comparison of results over time.

The next step was to identify the principles, criteria, indicators and verifiers covering the following three areas of evaluation: socio-economics; ecology and the environment; and community culture and self-management. Each of these three areas has its own respective principles of sustainability, just as each principle has its own criteria, each of which has its indicators and, lastly, its relevant verifiers.


A principle provides the framework for sustainable forest development.

It constitutes a fundamental law or truth as the basis for a rationale or action, and provides the justification for the criteria, indicators and verifiers generated .

For the purposes of the study, a principle was considered an achievable goal in the social and ecological process of sustainable development.

The hierarchical system in the evaluation model comprised the following basic principles of sustainability.


Principle 1:

Respect and concern for community life favour sustainable development.

This is an ethical principle.

It means that development should not take place to the detriment of other external groups not linked to the community in question.

Externalities are common in virtually every area of economic activity. They are defined as third party (or spill-over) effects arising from the production and/or consumption of goods and services for which no appropriate compensation is paid.


Principle 2:

The harmonious development of people, natural resources and the environment is what sustains the quality of human life. What is really demanded of development is that it better the quality of people's lives.

Economic growth is an important component of development, but cannot be a goal in itself. Sustainable development is only real if it makes the life of the community better in every sense.

In fact, given our stated goals, the only formulations of even tentative interest are those depicted by the blue points. These are the Pareto-optimal points, which together make up the Pareto front, named after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto. The points on the Pareto front are said to dominate the other points.


Principle 3:

Conservation and protection of biodiversity and the environment favour sustainable development.

Conservation-based development necessarily includes deliberate action to protect the structure, functions and diversity of ecosystems and of the environment.

Sub-objectives associated with the community objective of resource conservation and their associated importance scores.


Principle 4:

Forest ecosystem management must not exceed the capa-city of the ecosystem. The limits of ecosystem functioning vary from one ecosystem to another. Policies need to bring the number of people and their livelihoods into balance with the capacity of the ecosystem.

This capacity must be developed through careful management designed to provide quality goods and services in a sustainable way. Furthermore, the continuous interaction among people, natural resources and the environment must be managed to cause the least possible damage to the ecosystem.


Principle 5:

The culture of the community must be in line with sustainable development.

People need to re-examine their values and behaviour.

The community should promote values that support the new ethics, and do away with those incompatible with a sustainable way of life.

Interaction of the human social system with the ecosystem


Principle 6:

Community self-management and ownership are fundamental for sustainable development.

Properly informed, motivated, committed and responsible communities can and must contribute to the decisions affecting them and play a crucial role in sustainable development

Five Modalities Model of Community Development

sustainable state project
Sustainable State Project
  • Joint project between Local government and State Government
  • Creates goals and indicators to identify and track important sustainability issues
  • Integrates academic, private sector, governmental and citizen expertise
  • Links government programs to ensure implementation
  • Broad Target Audience - accessible and informative to all New Jerseyans
  • Comprehensive - covering economy, environment, and society
new jersey future
New Jersey Future

regulatory compliance

  • 14 year-old nonprofit organization
  • Work with government and business
  • Designed NJ’s Sustainable State goals and indicators process
  • Develop and advocate solutions to NJ’s sustainable development and land use issues

The risk management approach allows companies to save money by anticipating and avoiding expenditures arising from environmental damage, and by minimizing the cost of complying with future legislation.

In addition, operating costs can be reduced through waste minimization, pollution prevention and the elimination of health & safety hazards.

netherlands green plan
Netherlands Green Plan
  • To achieve sustainability in one generation
  • Sets measurable goals
  • Tracks progress toward meeting goals
  • Utilizes integrated planning, across governments, departments and industry sectors, to achieve the goals
  • Widely recognized and supported by citizens
what did we learn
What Did We Learn?

Seeing Things Differently Is The First Step Toward Doing Things Differently

Without Clear Goals for the Future, and a System to Track Progress, You are Just Spinning Your Wheels


Sustainable business strategies

Business strategies for sustainable development mark the final phase in the journey. The aim is to seek win-win situations which can achieve environmental quality, increase wealth, and enhance competitive advantage.

Companies integrate sustainable development into their business strategies.

Sustainable development is a natural extension of many corporate environmental policies. In the pursuit of economic, environmental and community benefits, management considers the long-term interests and needs of the stakeholders.


Sustainable business strategies

Sustainable development strategies uncover business opportunities in issues which, in earlier stages of the journey, might be regarded as costs to be borne or risks to be mitigated.

Results include new business processes with reduced external impacts, improved financial performance, and an enhanced reputation among communities and stakeholders.

For the business enterprise, sustainable development means adopting strategies and activities that meet the needs of the enterprise and its stakeholders today while protecting, sustaining and enhancing the human and natural resources that will be needed in the future.


Sustainable development and environmental protection compared


By protecting the environment we support sustainable development. A healthy environment means clean air, unpolluted water and healthy soil, which are necessary for the survival of future generations.

The preservation of natural resources supports sustainability. Many environmental concepts like reuse and recycling allow us to save natural resources for future generations.

Environmental training and education support sustainable development. While working to protect the environment we learn more about the world around us and improve our ability to identify solutions for sustainable development.


Sustainable development and environmental protection compared


Environment is just one of the components embedded in the concept of sustainable development. Society and economy are equally important. Although it is necessary to protect the environment it is not always sufficient, since a healthy environment does not necessary mean a prosperous society or a healthy economy.

Sustainable development is a goal of the entire society. Thus a participatory approach is an integral part of sustainability

Sustainable development explores the relationships between environmental, social and economic benefits. Environmental protection is often limited to the impact on nature.

Environmental protection implies reducing adverse effects, not necessarily allowing future generations to inherit the same amount of natural, social and economic wealth as their predecessors.

Whereas environmental protection is often regulated, sustainable development involves going beyond compliance.

creating goals indicators
Creating Goals & Indicators
  • NJ Leaders Create Draft Goals
  • NJ academics and experts create draft indicators
  • Large Statewide Forums, Small Regional and Topical Forums
  • State agency review
  • Diverse review committee
  • Third Sustainable State Conference - Release Goals & Indicators


“Sustainable development” is development that will “... meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

Definition from the 1987 Brundtland Commission

(The World Commission on Environment and Development)

a sustainable state
A Sustainable State

This symbol represents what a Sustainable State would look like.

Each of the three rings, economy, environment and society, is a system that we rely on to support us.

Unless all three are functioning and healthy, we will not be sustainable. You canít pull on one, to the exclusion of the others.

sustainable state goals
Economic Vitality


Strong Community, Culture & Recreation

Quality Education

Good Government

Decent Housing

Healthy People

Efficient Transportation & Land Use

Natural & Ecological Integrity

Protected Natural Resources

Minimal Pollution & Waste

Sustainable State Goals
goal economic vitality
GOAL: Economic Vitality

An economy that is competitive, diverse and attractive to business; that maintains and expands assets and capital; that provides a variety of entry-, middle- and high-level jobs; and that promotes the well-being of New Jersey’s communities and its workforce.

goal economic vitality1
GOAL: Economic Vitality
  • Income
  • Unemployment
  • Productivity
  • Poverty
  • GSP
  • Energy efficiency.

Sustainable Development with reference to Different forms of Capital

goal efficient transportation land use
GOAL: Efficient Transportation & Land Use

A choice of efficient, convenient, safe and affordable transportation and land use options, providing access to jobs, shopping, recreational centers, schools, airports and rail centers.

This Goal, for Efficient Transportation and Land Use, is obviously key to the success and future of New Jersey businesses.

goal efficient transportation land use1
GOAL: Efficient Transportation & Land Use
  • Need for road and bridge repairs
  • Vehicle miles traveled
  • Workplace transportation options
  • Traffic fatalities

goal protected natural resources
GOAL: Protected Natural Resources

The complex interactions among the different dimensions of sustainable development

goal protected natural resources1
GOAL: Protected Natural Resources
  • Energy consumption
  • Farmland
  • Beach and bay closings
  • Preserved and developed land.

The six major systems of the anthroposphere and their major relationships. These six sector systems can be aggregated to the three subsystems: Human System, Built System (Human Engineered System) and Natural System.

goal minimal pollution waste
GOAL: Minimal Pollution & Waste

Minimize the generation and accumulation of pollution and waste; maximize the use of efficient, clean and sustainable energy sources; and increase consumer choices for ecologically friendly products.

goal minimal pollution waste1
GOAL: Minimal Pollution & Waste
  • Greenhouse gas releases
  • Drinking water quality
  • Solid waste production
  • Air pollution

other indicators
Other Indicators
  • Mortality (Life Expectancy)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Housing Affordability
  • Wage Equality
  • Voter Turnout
  • Knowledge of Government
  • Standardized Test Scores.

An understanding of the sustainability of the natural system lies at the confluence of many disciplines

where are we now
Where Are We Now?
  • “Living With The Future in Mind II” Released With Targets
  • Nearly 20,000 Copies of I & II Distributed
  • Executive Order #96 Signed
  • State Government Begins Implementation
  • Businesses and NGO begin Implementation
  • Transition and Planning for Institutionalization

All State Agencies and Departments Shall:

  • Pursue policies which comport with the 11 sustainability goals.
  • Establish institutional mechanisms, and collaborate in the exchange of information, to facilitate the achievement of these goals.
  • Report to the Governor, and every year thereafter, on their progress toward goal attainment.






(Performance Measures)

njdep implementation
NJDEP Implementation
  • Strategic Planning and NEPPS
  • Sustainability “Lens” and Assessment
  • Silver and Gold Track
  • NJ/Netherlands “Aide Memoire” on Global Warming
  • Linking Targets and Programs (e.g. Greenhouse Gas Action Plan)





other departments and agencies
Other Departments and Agencies
  • Higher Education Capital Fund (Education)
  • Budget Guidelines for Sustainability (Management and Budget)
  • Sustainable Housing Program (Community Affairs)
  • Indicator Tracking (All Agencies)
  • Interagency Work Group on Sustainable Development - “Governing With The Future In Mind” (All Agencies)
where are we now1
Where Are We Now?
  • “Living With The Future in Mind ” Released With Targets
  • State Government Begins Implementation
  • Businesses and NGO begin Implementation
  • Transition and Planning for Institutionalization
business implementation
Business Implementation
  • Participation in Silver Track
  • Corporate Responsibility
  • NJ Sustainable Business Alliance
  • Self Assessment and Corporate Sustainability Reports
  • Sustainability “Seal of Approval”
  • Participants and Watchdogs
ngo implementation
NGO Implementation
  • Participants and Watchdogs
  • Local Partners and Mimics - Morris 2000, Hunterdon 2020, Passaic Tomorrow
  • NGO Partners - ANJEC, NJ Future, NJHEPS, Affordable Housing Network
transition and institutionalization
Transition and Institutionalization
  • Institutionalize the goals and indicators inside and outside of government
  • Work with the business community to adopt and implement the goals
  • Work with local government and communities to “nest” goals and indicators

Permanent Non-governmental Home

Permanent Governmental Home

• Stability • Broad Scope • Implementation

• Research • Benchmarks • Credibility • Broad Outreach

Citizen Participation

Strategic Planning

Living with the Future in Mind

Governing With the Future In Mind


2001 and Beyond



transisi institusionalisasi
Transisi & Institusionalisasi

Jalanmenujucita-cita & tujuanpembangunan

  • Institutionalize the goals and indicators inside and outside of government
  • Work with the business community to adopt and implement the goals
  • Work with local government and communities to “nest” goals and indicators
transisi institutionalisasi
Transisi & Institutionalisasi
  • Institutionalize the goals and indicators inside and outside of government
  • Work with the business community to adopt and implement the goals
  • Work with local government and communities to “nest” goals and indicators

State Goals

Local Goals

State Indicators

Local Indicators

State Plans & Operations

Local Plans

& Operations