from pen 2 bit computers in architectural design
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
From Pen 2 Bit: Computers in Architectural Design

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

From Pen 2 Bit: Computers in Architectural Design - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

From Pen 2 Bit: Computers in Architectural Design. Vassilis Bourdakis Dept. of Planning and Regional Development University of Thessaly Greece. [email protected] Overview. istory nalogue igital Processes [Basic principles] nalysis esign nalysis mplementation onclusions.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'From Pen 2 Bit: Computers in Architectural Design' - evania

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
from pen 2 bit computers in architectural design

From Pen 2 Bit: Computers in Architectural Design

Vassilis Bourdakis

Dept. of Planning and Regional Development

University of Thessaly


[email protected]




igital Processes [Basic principles]






history spatial representation techniques 1
HistorySpatial Representation Techniques [1]
  • Plans in black ink on papyrus sheets: 2000BC Near and Far East, Mesopotamia and Egypt
  • Greek temples were built on sets of proven portable rules. Avoided drawings but only 1/1 scale models of particular details
  • Scenography introduced in Hellenistic periods (creating illusions of depth for the 4cen. BC Greek theatre stages
  • Romans did use drawings and elevations
  • Proper plans, sections and elevations were used in Western Europe after the rediscovery of Euclidean geometry in 1100AD
spatial representation techniques 2
Spatial Representation Techniques[2]
  • Medieval period architects would examine suitable buildings, trace them and modify them to produce their designs in card sheets later on destroyed or recycled
  • Perspective drawing developed in Renaissance
  • Orthographic (first angle projection) drawings an essential element in the creation of Industrial Revolution (by French physicist and military engineer Gaspard Monge)
  • Formalisation of architectural education and profession (fine-line drafting skills, technical drawing)
  • Twentieth century art movements fully abandoned linear perspective and representational techniques in favour of abstraction, experimentation, etc.
analogue to digital processes basic principles
Analogue to Digital Processes[Basic Principles]
  • Permanency of analogue vs.volatility of digital media
  • The architectural concept ofline (physical, representational, digital)
  • Moving from the line as an element toa database representational object
  • Information Communication
volatility of digital media
Volatility of Digital Media
  • Materiality of a line paper drawing
    • It is physically there
    • Accessible
    • Foldable
    • Transportable
    • Editable
  • Non-physical existence of a digital drawing, unless printed and distributed
    • Triviality
    • Dependency on electricity and
    • Necessitates a computer, monitor, projector system to materialise and be communicable
the architectural concept of line
The architectural concept of line
  • Architectural design as a series of uncertainty reduction iterations where a line can be a tool to:
    • Conceptualise a plan
    • Organise Space
    • Functional structuring of elements/spaces
    • Compare alternatives
  • A line is:
    • Re-definable according to needs, conditions, even mood and time of day…
    • Flexible in its meaning and qualities (start, end, thickness, elevation, etc)
  • A line is not:
    • A strict mathematical equation
    • Clinical, finite
    • Structured
    • Absolute
line database representational object
Line: database representational object
  • Line-Element of a drawing, painting, generic graphical representation is uni-dimensional and can only conceptually include additional meanings
  • Digital objects rarely have a uni-dimensional representation in a drawing—the underlying data structure may incorporate a series of other datasets making for an interlinked multidimensional setup: the missing link between design and production/construction (bill of quantities in construction phases, cost calculations, project management, etc)
analogies of a 2 d
Analogies of A 2 D
  • One discreet entity / element may imply, infer differently according to context and may also be analysed accordingly
    • Conceptual meaning
      • A sketched line may imply a wall, a separation, a visual occlusion, etc
      • A CAD line drawn may incorporate information relating it to other subassemblies, entities, conditions
    • Utilisation
criticism on digital design tools
Criticism on digital design tools

“From the graphic opportunity afforded by the CAD system and exploited by Deconstructionist designers who simply punch ROTATE and STRETCH on their computers to project forced-decorative geometric expressions of complexity and contradiction that weirdly exploit a deference toward the forms of classic Modern architecture while really profaning its principles”

[R. Venturi, p.7]

analysis designing in architecture
Analysis[Designing in Architecture]
  • Architects and Computers
  • Use of Computers
  • Digital Design Tools
  • 2D vs. 3D modelling
  • Modelling Time (4D)
architects and computers
Architects and computers
  • Education (where, when, acceptable technologies, preconceptions of teaching staff, etc)
  • Age group (directly linked to education, small variations based on the speed of adoption of new technologies in various institutions)
  • Gender (less of an issue in younger ages)
architects use of computers
Architects’ use of computers

Classification based on adeptness:

  • General Knowledge
  • Minor editing, printing, etc
  • 2D drawing capabilities
  • 3D/4D modelling knowledge
  • Design Tool
digital design tools
Digital Design Tools
  • What can the computer do for an architect
  • Simulation of the typical design process?
  • Compared to the computer games industry, architectural design tools are where Space Invaders was in the 1970. No comparison to current day gaming industry.
  • Among the reasons are
    • Small market share
    • Users unaware of the potential
    • Architectural design process difficult to:
      • Comprehend
      • Simulate
      • Prototype and
      • Re-enact
2d vs 3d computer modelling
2D vs. 3D computer modelling
  • Certain structural subassemblies can be best analysed and designed in 3D:
    • Lighting, shading
    • Heating and Ventilation
    • Volumetric occlusions
    • Staircases, roofs, etc
  • However the 2D design conventions are much easier and more elaborate to work with
  • Designers often work in 3D just because it is possible and not because it is advantageous
  • Due to the immaturity and inabilities of the 3D modelling tools, creativity is crippled leading to:
    • Exhausted, annoyed architects, failing to materialise their ideas
    • Poor designs but within the capabilities of the software…
4d modelling the variable of time
4D modelling: The variable of Time
  • Digital design tools facilitate the integration of time in the design process
  • A powerful concept not fully exploited by architects
  • Time as a variable in relation to a representation of an assembly, process, or function
analysis implementation codes
Analysis [Implementation Codes]
  • Capabilities of Digital Design Tools
  • Communicating Construction Drawings
  • Construction Codes Adherence
  • Paper replacements
capabilities of digital design tools
Capabilities of Digital Design Tools
  • Abundance of CAD design tools organised in two main groups
    • Structured/holistic dealing with:
      • Spatial Design
      • Creation of production drawings (for planning offices, subcontractors, other team engineers, etc)
    • Flexible/partial capable of:
      • Elaborating form production in 3D
      • Morphing, editing, etc
      • Limited regarding the production of 2D constructional drawings
communicating construction drawings
Communicating Construction Drawings
  • The dominance of computers in design and construction is still matched with low-tech means of communicating the work on site via paper
  • Augmented Reality methods are discussed for over a decade with no concrete viable solutions in the market
  • GPS (Global Positioning Systems) have also been considered, but again cost, accuracy and physical constraints prevail
construction code adherence
Construction Code Adherence
  • Taking the step to digital design for construction, there is a need to re-think the codes, re-evaluate them and update them to a digital-friendly format
  • Issues that need to be tackled are:
    • New codes’ “compatibility” with the existing codes
    • Education of the relevant trades
    • Accessibility to contractors and labour
      • Abstract representations of the constructional elements relevant to each trade
      • Use of colour
      • 3D sketching, wire-frame views
      • Time variable to map the sequence of works
paper replacements
Paper replacements
  • The paper replacement in the forms of e-paper as researched by Xerox, IBM and others, needs more time to mature and satisfy the following needs:
    • Cheap to produce in reasonably large sizes (A2-A3)
    • Foldable
    • Waterproof
    • Support colour
    • High resolution
    • Markable
    • Interactive
    • Online with supervisor and designer for feedback and reports
  • Hence, paper seems to be the medium that will be building the world for the next decade
  • Digital Media:
    • New directions opening up into
      • Researching Space
      • Designing Space
      • Implementing Space
    • Work in both Real and Virtual Environments
      • Widening the market share for architects
      • Alternative research and application directions
conclusions 2
Conclusions [2]
  • Digital Era in Architectural Design is
    • Advantageous in:
      • Processes
      • Clarity
      • Flexibility
    • Still Problematic in:
      • Implementation/construction
      • Communication
conclusions 3
Conclusions [3]
  • Fighting Misconceptions
  • Get the approval of the status quo
  • Accepted as a tool and not a hindrance to architectural design and production of space
  • Architectural-minded software tools are in urgent need (generic tools are not satisfactory)