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  1. Understanding & facilitating Emotional presence in an online community of inquiry Dr. M Cleveland-Innes martic@athabascau.ca Prisca Campbell, MDE priscamary@sympatico.ca 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  2. The Question of Emotion • How does emotion impact learning? • How is emotion present in online learning environments? • What social factors guide the experience and expression of emotion? • How do we manage and support emotion and its impact on learning in online learning environments? 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  3. Joseph LeDoux • Studied fear in rats • His definition of emotion: “the process by which the brain determines or computes the value of a stimulus” (2002, p. 206). • His conclusion: We are not always conscious of the role of emotions in decision making. 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  4. Joseph LeDoux “…the wiring of the brain at this point in our evolutionary history is such that connections from the emotional systems to the cognitive systems are stronger than connections from the cognitive systems to the emotional systems.” (1996, p. 19) 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  5. Antonio Damasio • He studied Elliot: although brain damaged, was capable of rational analysis. • He observed: Eliot had lost his ability to draw conclusions. • The damaged portion of the brain processed emotion. 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  6. “Emotion, feeling, and biological regulation all play a role in human reason”(Damasio, 1994, p. xiii). 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

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  9. Social Factors Guide Emotion …multilevel integrative analysis is required (Cacioppo, et al. 2000). …feelings are no less functions of reflection than cognitive processes (Aboulafia & Banon, 2004). …individuals ..... experience emotions that reflect successes and failures of the confirmation process (Lively & Heise, 2004) 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  10. Social Factors and Online Learning …students do see a difference in the learning process ….. (Garrison, Cleveland-Innes & Fung, 2004) …virtual environments show characteristics that we know to exist in social systems … (Becker & Mark, 1999). …as the role of online learner is still undefined, students grapple with requirements, looking to their own reasoning, other students and the instructor for direction about the right things to do. (Cleveland-Innes, Garrison & Kinsel, 2006). 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  11. Community of Inquiry Framework Social Presence The ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally as ‘real’ people (i.e., their full personality), through the medium of communication being used. Cognitive Presence The extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry. Teaching Presence The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes. Garrison, Anderson and Archer (2000) 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  12. The Studies • Exploratory study of the impact of a concurrent participatory online workshop • Examined the lived-experience through CMC transcripts To construct knowledge about emotion in cognition. • Quasi-experimental design Entrance interviews examined the entry state of the respondents Exit interviews and surveys examined the respondents’ changed state at the end of the period of study 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  13. Sample • Students in courses delivered online with asynchronous technology at a post-secondary distance learning institution. • Chosen for the type of technology used and the novice status of the students 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  14. DELIGHT/HAPPINESS EMPHASIS EXCITEMENT YEARNING/WISHING PASSION DESIRE UNHAPPINESS HUMOR PRIDE ENJOYMENT FEAR FRUSTRATION WONDER DISAPPOINTMENT SURPRISE Feelings about moving online 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  15. Delight Emphasis Excitement Yearning Passion Desire / hope Unhappiness Humor Pride Enjoyment Like Dislike Thankfulness Appreciation Preference Irony / sarcasm Noticeable emotions online 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  16. Emotional Presence 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  17. Facilitation Support • emotion is present; observe, acknowledge, support • be emotionally present • make emotion explicit • offer insight about emotion and learning • use teaching presence to set structure/climate in which emotions are appropriately expressed • expressing emotion vs. managing emotion 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  18. References Damasio, A. R. (1995). Descartes' error: emotion reason and the human brain. New York: Quill. Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T. & Archer, W. (2000). Critical Inquiry in a text-based environment: computer conferencing in higher education. In Internet and Higher Education, 2 (2). pp 87-105. Retrieved September 14, 2006 from http://www.atl.ualberta.ca/cmc/CTinTextEnvFinal.pdf LeDoux, J. (2002). The synaptic self: how our brains become who we are. New York: Penguin. Lehman, R. (2006). The role of emotion in creating Instructor and learner presence in the distance education experience. Journal of Cognitive Affective Learning,2(2) (Spring 2006), 12-26. Retrieved September 14 from: https://www.jcal.emory.edu//viewarticle.php?id=45&layout=html O’Regan, K. (2003). Emotion and e-learning. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(3), 78-92. Retrieved September 14, 2006 from: http://www.sloan-corg/publications/jaln/v7n3/pdf/v7n3_oregan.pdf#search=%22%22Emotion%20and%20E-Learning%22%22 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  19. Emotional Presence Community of Interest To join, send e-mail to Prisca Campbell, MDE priscamary@sympatico.ca 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  20. What happens when ………… you get a gigabyte? 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference

  21. It MEGAHERTZ! 12th Annual SLOAN-C Conference