Quiz Today. Look over your notes from Days 1 and 2 and be ready to take a short quiz about 5 minutes after the bell. Life in the City in the Late 1800s. An Immigrant Story. Immigration in the Late 1800s.
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Quiz Today • Look over your notes from Days 1 and 2 and be ready to take a short quiz about 5 minutes after the bell.
Life in the City in the Late 1800s An Immigrant Story
Immigration in the Late 1800s • As we see more factories and businesses grow in the late 1800s, more people move to the cities from farms.(Urbanization) • Many came in STEERAGE – the cheapest and lowest levels of passenger ships • In addition, many IMMIGRANTS come from other countries to the U.S. as well. • ELLIS ISLAND – Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe come across the Atlantic Ocean to Ellis Island in New York harbor. • ANGEL ISLAND – Immigrants from Asia (primarily China) come across the Pacific to Angel Island in San Francisco Bay.
Factors Contributing to Immigration Push Factors- issues that made immigrants want to leave their home country. • Poor Economies • Religious Persecution • Absolutist Governments Pull Factors- issues that made immigrants want to come to America • Booming Economy- jobs • Freedom of Religion • Democracy
Angel Island Poetry There are tens of thousands of poems on these wallsThey are all cries of suffering and sadnessThe day I am rid of this prison and become successfulI must remember that this chapter once existedI must be frugal in my daily needsNeedless extravagance usually leads to ruinAll my compatriots should remember ChinaOnce you have made some small gains,you should return home early. I thoroughly hate the barbarians because theydo not respect justice.They continually promulgate harsh laws toshow off their prowess.They oppress the overseas Chinese and alsoviolate treaties.They examine for hookworms and practicehundreds of despotic acts.
NATIVISM • Many people in America didn’t like the new wave of immigrants coming here. • NATIVISTS opposed immigration for multiple reasons: • Economic: They felt immigrants would take jobs and work for very cheap wages • Social: Immigrants were blamed for problems like crime, poverty and violence • Religious: Many immigrants brought new religions that scared people • In 1882, Congress passes the CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT – it denied citizenship to Chinese immigrants and banned new immigrants from coming to the U.S.
LIFE IN THE CITIES • Once immigrants got through immigration, life wasn’t that easy either. • Many immigrants lived in TENEMENTS – low income apartments. • Tenements had a lot of problems: • Overcrowding- too many people in too small a place • Unsanitary Conditions- disease was rampant • Safety Concerns- the Buildings were just thrown together with no concern for safety issues.
Despite these problems, cities continued to grow. SKYSCRAPERS helped solve space problem – cities grew up when they couldn’t grow out. New forms of TRANSPORTATION allowed people with money to move a little farther away from the middle of the city. People could COMMUTE from their home on the outskirts into the city to work. Architecture in the Cities :Late 1800s
FlatironBuilding NYC – 1902 D. H. Burnham
Religious Reformers worked to better conditions in the city according to Biblical ideas of charity and justice. The SALVATION ARMY and the YMCA are formed to help the urban poor and give them religious guidance. Andrew Carnegie applied this concept through Philanthropy. THE SOCIAL GOSPEL MOVEMENT
People try to help living conditions for the working poor and immigrants by starting SETTLEMENT HOUSES. The most famous settlement house was the HULL HOUSE in Chicago opened by Jane Addams. Other Settlement houses include: South End House in Boston Henry Street Settlement in NYC (Lillian Wald) Locust Street Social Settlement (for African Americans by Janie Porter Barnett) SETTLEMENT HOUSES
In the late 1800s, the number of PUBLIC schools increases drastically. To help deal with educational discrimination, African Americans like BOOKER T. WASHINGTON start schools like the TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE in Alabama New colleges and universities (esp. women's colleges) open up. New public libraries (including many funded by Andrew Carnegie) open up around the U.S. EDUCATION IN THE LATE 1800s
LEISURE TIME • For those who had money, there was plenty of cool new stuff to do in the city: • Baseball: Becomes very popular in the late 1800s. The first World Series is played in 1903 between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Boston Pilgrims (later the Red Sox) • Football: Becomes popular on college campuses • Basketball: Invented by James Naismith in Springfield, MA • VAUDEVILLE – Variety shows that people could come see for a small price • RAGTIME – Musicians like SCOTT JOPLIN bring a new type of music to the cities.