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  1. The External Southern Periphery Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan Ashley Vinopal World Geography Mrs. Nelson

  2. Transcaucasia • Today Transcaucasia is made up of three former Soviet Socialist Republics: Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. • While independent states, they are still closely tied to Russia and remain part of the Russian Realm. • The region is historically a battleground for several groups: • Christians and Muslims • Armenians and Turks • Russians and Persians

  3. Armenia • Landlocked country of 3 million people • Rugged, mountainous terrain in earthquake prone Transcaucasia • Christians who continuously fight to secure their homeland on margins of the Muslim world • WWI- Ottoman Turks massacred the Christian Armenian minority and drove survivors to Anatolia (Turkey); independent Armenia arose after the war but lasted only 2 years • 1920- Armenia taken over by Soviets • 1936- became 1 of 15 constituent republics of the Soviet Union (S.U.) • Collapse of S.U. gave Armenia independence • Soon was at war with Azerbaijan over 150,000 Armenians in an exclave within Azerbaijan • Exclave had been created by S.U. • Muslim Azerbaijan had jurisdiction over Christian Armenians • Conflict escalated and Armenians gained control over the exclave • Occupation not recognized by the international community

  4. Georgia • Black Sea coast and outlet to wider world with roughly 4.4 million people • Characterized by high mountains and fertile valleys • 30% of its population are actually from surrounding countries • Has problematic political geography • 3 minority-based autonomous entities • Abkhazian and Ajarian Republics, and South Ossetian Region • 1800s- annexed by Russia who wanted a warm-water port • Russian Revolution- Georgians took advantage of the situation and reclaimed their independence • 1921- Soviets reincorporated Georgia • 1936- Georgia proclaimed a Soviet Socialist Republic

  5. Georgia and Russia • 1991- Georgia declared its independence • The Autonomous Region of South Ossetia wants to join Russia’s North Ossetia • Russia intervened when Abkhazia proclaimed independence • Russia also thought that Georgia was not doing enough to fight Muslim extremists operating in the Caucasus

  6. Azerbaijan • Turkish people divided on both sides of the Iranian and Azerbaijan border by the Russians and Persians in 1828 • Is a former Socialist Republic with 8.7 million people • Has huge reservoirs of oil and natural gas and was one of Russia’s chief sources of fuel • Has tried to establish independence from Moscow • America is now one of its chief customers and arranged the construction of an alternative pipeline route that avoids going through Russia. • Although a Muslim country which may sometime turn to the Islamic world, Azerbaijan is currently caught in the energy market