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Diversity Programs. Oversimplification Helpful or harmful?. The Challenge. To create justice and respect between groups of people and between individuals at a time when global migrations have intensified and new community situations have emerged. Objectives.

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diversity programs
Diversity Programs
  • Oversimplification
  • Helpful or harmful?
the challenge
The Challenge
  • To create justice and respect between groups of people and between individuals at a time when global migrations have intensified and new community situations have emerged.
objectives
Objectives
  • Address issues of labor market discrimination
  • Examine the economic and societal impacts of differential treatment
  • Address views from individual, organizational, and societal levels
  • Evaluate public policies created to “help” these societal problems
changing demographics of population
Changing Demographics of Population

By the year 2050

  • 52%
  • 25%
  • 13%
  • 8%
  • 1%
diversity facts
Diversity Facts
  • Minorities now account for _____ for the net growth of the nation’s labor force
  • Women now comprise _____ of the labor force
facts continued
Facts Continued…
  • Over the next 20 years the US population will grow by 42 million people
    • 47%
    • 22%
    • 18%
    • 13%
diversity not a new trend
Diversity…Not a new trend
  • Miami is 2/3 ____________
  • San Francisco is 1/3 _____________
  • _______________ has minority majority standing
cultural lenses
Cultural Lenses
  • Rigid Lenses
  • Open Lenses
  • “An individual may assume they understand another person’s culture, but these assumptions are usually what keep the two apart”
why study diversity
Why study diversity?
  • Increasing immigration patterns
  • More women in the workforce
  • Changes in civil rights legislation
does it make a difference
Does it make a difference?
  • “Diverse teams are more effective and creative in an increasingly competitive economy” Honoring Diversity in the Workplace
  • “Development of the future workforce is a critical issue for high tech companies. We must find ways to remain creative and innovative, and diversity of thought is fundamental to creativity.”Rich Templeton, Texas Instruments
questions to address
Questions to address
  • Why has the composition of the labor force been changing so rapidly?
  • What are the major diversity issues?
  • How can we deal with these issues on a professional level?
women and work
Women and Work
  • Labor Force participation of women has been expanding over the last several decades.
  • 1970 study
female labor force participation rates
Female Labor Force Participation Rates
  • Definition:
  • ________ in the 1970s
  • ________ in 1998
  • Male labor force participation rates decreased from _________ during that same period.
  • Why the change? Are men getting lazy???
women are becoming more numerous in what used to be labeled male jobs

Women are becoming more numerous in what used to be labeled “male jobs”

Examples…

How does this impact society?

the female occupation formula
The “Female Occupation Formula”
  • Occupations which employ _______ women almost always have in common certain characteristics that women seem to find desirable
women may be in male jobs but their wages are less then a comparable male s wage

Women may be in “male jobs” but their wages are less then a comparable male’s wage

WHY???

discrimination
Discrimination
  • By employer
  • By other employees
  • By the customer
sex and gender is not the whole story
Sex and Gender is not the whole story
  • Also must include
  • Adds serious complications
gender typecasts occupations
Gender typecasts occupations
  • Influences ________
  • Influences _________ about that job and the person within the job
quarter overview
Quarter Overview
  • Gender’s impact on interviews
  • Gender’s impact on job evaluations and promotions
  • Environmental changes due to changes in gender composition
  • Sexuality in the workplace
    • Welcome, i.e. relationships
    • Unwelcome, i.e. sexual harassment
    • Same sex relationships
  • Affirmative Action
common sense about the other essed p 6 13
Common Sense about the “Other” (Essed p. 6-13)
  • Who is the “other”?
  • What is racism?
  • What part did racism play in our society in the past?
  • What part does it play today?
old vs new ideology
Old vs. New Ideology
  • Old: Not like because
  • New: Not like because
what causes the problems in society
What causes the problems in society?
  • Prejudice
  • Discrimination
  • Segregation
two types of prejudice
Two types of Prejudice
  • Stereotypes
  • Social distance
four types of discrimination
Four types of Discrimination
  • Individual
  • Direct Institutional
  • Statistical
  • Structural
who has the power
Who has the power?
  • Men and Women do have Physiological and Psychological differences but why are women seen as inferior?
  • Ernestine Fried (anthropologist)
  • Other Scientists
men women relationships through time

Men-Women Relationships Through Time

Past to present

(Blau p 12-29)

early traditional family cont
Early “Traditional Family” Cont.
  • Woman working was seen by society as:
why would people marry under these circumstances
Why would people marry under these circumstances?
  • Gary Becker’s _________________
comparative advantage
Comparative Advantage
  • What is opportunity cost???
  • Males – comparative advantage in???
  • Females – comparative advantage in???
producing and trading
Producing and trading
  • Two people: Elizabeth and Brian
  • Each produce two goods: Bread and Apples
  • Elizabeth  10 loaves of bread and 10 apples
  • Brian  5 loaves of bread and 15 apples
comparative advantage1
Comparative Advantage
  • Should both produce apples and bread or should they specialize?
  • What does specialize mean?
    • Looks at opportunity cost
      • What was that?
what are the opportunity costs
What are the opportunity costs?
  • Elizabeth
    • If give up 10 apples how much more bread can she produce?
    • If give up 10 loaves of bread how many more apples can she produce?
  • Opportunity Costs
what are the opportunity costs1
What are the opportunity costs?
  • Brian
    • If give up 15 apples how much more bread can he produce?
    • If give up 5 loaves of bread how many more apples can he produce?
  • Opportunity Costs
should we specialize
Should we specialize?
  • Elizabeth
  • Brian
  • Who produces apples cheaper?
  • Who produces bread cheaper?
here is the deal
Here is the deal
  • Elizabeth produces only
  • Brian produces only
  • Trade 8 loaves of bread for 12 apples
  • Breakdown of end result
    • Elizabeth Bread?
    • Elizabeth Apples?
slide56
Brian Bread
  • Brian Apples
  • Are they better off??
changes in society overtime
Changes in Society overtime
  • Marriage Bar (late 1800s until mid 1900s)
  • Labor Force Participation of women has consistently been increasing
  • How have these changes impacted the workforce?
general theory
General Theory
  • Men and women differ in nature so should their roles in society
  • Comes from:
question
Question
  • If general theory is correct, how do men and women differ beyond child bearing?
  • Should humans of the male (female) sex (biological) be forced to “act” as the male (female) gender (psychological)?
    • Time Magazine “His name is Aurora” 09/19/00
how do we examine gender
How do we examine gender?
  • Examination?
  • Questions?
  • Set up a Model of gender…
model
Model
  • What is this?
uni dimensional model of gender
Uni-dimensional Model of Gender

Male

Masculinity

Female

Femininity

biodimensional model sandra bem pages 155 162
Biodimensional Model(Sandra Bem pages 155-162)

Masculinity

low

high

Androgynous

Androgynous

Masculinity

Femininity

low

high

Femininity

gender role identity
Gender-Role Identity
  • A person with both male and female traits is said to be ________________
  • Remember --- PSYCHOLOGICAL NOT PHYSICAL
your personal qualities
Your Personal Qualities
  • “The measure of psychological androgyny”
    • Sandra Bem
  • BSRI includes both male and female characteristics based on society’s standards of desirable behavior for men/women.
your personal qualities cont
Your personal qualities cont.
  • Measure is a function of the difference between the endorsement of the masculine and feminine characteristics
  • Score determines the gender type orientation of the individual
is the bio dimensional model broad enough
Is the Bio-dimensional model broad enough?
  • Many researches argue ____________
are the definitions of male and female gender correct
Are the definitions of male and female gender correct?
  • Some argue definition is ______________
  • Why?
do more positive things happen to men
Do more positive things happen to men?
  • Research has shown more positive outcomes are associated with being male and ______________________
  • Less distinction is made with ______________________________
now want to expand this understanding to other races and cultures
Now want to expand this understanding to other races and cultures
  • Gender is easy to examine
  • People differ within genders as well as within races and cultures
  • Research on “other races” are predominately on white/black differences
is race and gender really important
Is Race and Gender really important?
  • Much emphasis within society on treating people equal
  • Is all this hype helping or increasing the problem?
advertisements
Advertisements
  • Advertisements convey ______________________________________________________________________
  • Several stereotypes of women’s roles occur regularly
advertisements cont
Advertisements cont.
  • Men have stereotypes as well
  • Women’s jeans advertisements emphasize ____________________________
  • Men’s jeans advertisements emphasize ________________________________
advertisement cont
Advertisement cont.
  • Why the difference?
  • What about the addition of race and culture?
subtle stereotyping
Subtle stereotyping
  • Functional ranking
  • Relative size
  • Subordination
  • Feminine touch
  • Family
findings1
Findings
  • Where do stereotypes come from?
what is the definition of minority
What is the definition of minority?
  • Anyone except white men???
  • People differ not only within genders but within races
  • Most research is on white/black differences
slide93
Race
  • What is your race?
  • What is my race?
  • How did you make this assessment?
race cont
Race cont.
  • Although physical markers combined with ancestry are used as the base for assigning race, scientists have concluded that there is NO basis for the use of race as ____________________________
  • IQ tests
iq tests
IQ tests
  • Indicates?
  • Average is ___________
  • Average difference between whites and blacks is ____________ points
  • Measures __________________
problems
Problems
  • How much you know depends on your _________________________
  • If control the ________________ IQ differences between the races decreases to ___________________
  • Race is ___________________
iq tests continued
IQ tests continued…
  • The cops have put Tony, Uncle Junior, Silvio, Paulie Walnuts, and Livia in a lineup, standing in spots numbered 1 through 6 from left to right. There’s one empty space. Livia is the third person from the left. Tony is to Uncle Junior’s immediate left. If Paulie Walnuts stands in space 6 with no one beside him, where is Silvio?
  • Seven years ago Jack was three times as old as Jill. If Jack is now five years older than Jill, how old is he?
    • (a) 12-1/2 (b) 13 (c) 13-1/2 (d) 14-1/2 (e) 15
standardized tests do they measure minorities fairly

STANDARDIZED TESTS:Do They Measure Minorities Fairly?

SAT is a ____________ that has come under fire for being _________ in ways that preclude many minority students from achieving high scores.

slide100

INTELLIGENCE DEFINED

R. J. Sternberg defined intelligence as consisting of _________________________________________________________________ (Sternberg, 1984)

slide101

Intelligence Defined...

Sternberg identified three types of intelligence:

slide103

RACISTS ORIGINS

_____________ first devised the IQ Test in ____________to identify children with low academic aptitudes that may need special schooling.

He specifically stated _______________________________________

slide104

Racist Origins...

Members of the ______________ societies ______________Binet’s intention and claimed that scores on the instrument provided ___________________________

eugenics
Eugenics
  • The study of hereditary improvement especially human improvement by ___________________
  • Believe in _____________
    • Why???
slide106

Racist Origins...

Therefore, the eugenicists said, the test could identify ___________________________________

slide107

Racist Origins...

In 1912, Henry Goddard used the standardized test to “scientifically prove” that:

  • ______ of Jews
  • ______ of Hungarians
  • ______ of Italians
  • ______ of Russian”

Were ____________ (Fallows, 1980)

slide108

Racist Origins...

In 1914, R.A. Ross and other eugenicists used the statistics provided by mental testing to campaign against integration of:

slide109

Racist Origins...

Carl Bringham, designer and developer of the SAT, articulated the following:

“The army mental test has proven beyond any scientific doubt that, like the American Negroes, the Italians, and the Jews are ineducable. It would be a waste of good money even to attempt to try to give these born morons and imbeciles a good Anglo-Saxon education, let alone admit them into our fine medical, law, and engineering graduate schools. (Kamin, 1974).

slide110

DOES THE SAT MEASURE MINORITIES FAIRLY?

African Americans tend to score ____________________ Whites on intelligence tests.

A furious debate over the meaning of these discrepancies has scientist examining the scores to determine the differences between the races.

slide111

HEREDITARIAN STANCE

The hereditarians strongly argue for

  • Some site __________
  • Others maintain ______________
  • Propagates idea _______________
  • Researchers conclude ___________________ African Americans and European Americans
slide112

ENVIRONMENTAL STANCE

In direct opposition to hereditarians, environmentalists argue that the discrepancy between scores is __________________

slide113

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

The Importance of Education on Intelligence Testing

slide114

THE EVIDENCE

Waco School District

Given a white failure rate of 37 percent what can we expect for the failure rates of blacks?

sat scores vs income
SAT Scores vs. Income

Test scores go up with ____________

They also improve with _________________

Both trends are observed within all ethnic and racial groups.

But before you blame ________________ status for test score gaps consider this:

sat scores vs parental education
SAT Scores vs. Parental Education

Some argue that social position, access to libraries, and the opportunity to take vacations may cause the gap in scores. However, consider this:

should we stop the sats
Should we stop the SATs?
  • University of California says __________
  • Question: What does it measure???
  • Biased against _____________________
what is causing these increases
What is causing these increases??
  • Twin study
  • Environmental influence on genetics accounts for the rest
now add race and gender
Now add Race and Gender…
  • Story becomes more complex
interaction of race and gender
Interaction of Race and Gender
  • Additive effects
  • Interactive effect
  • Both additive and interactive
now add in culture
Now add in culture
  • How do you define a person’s culture?
  • Is this accurate?
race culture and ethnicity
Race, culture, and ethnicity
  • Each is a distinct part of an individual
  • Within society many use these terms interchangeably
  • Can you define the three distinctly?
race culture ethnicity
Race, culture, ethnicity
  • Race:
  • Culture:
  • Ethnicity:
differences
Differences???
  • Culture has ___________________
  • Everyone (minority or majority) has ___________________
ethnicity can change views
Ethnicity can change views
  • Men and women views
  • If didn’t look at ethnicity _________________________-
ethnicity actually highlights the problems with generalizing across groups

Ethnicity actually highlights the problems with generalizing across groups

**These generalizations can lead to important facts about the society being studied being missed**

To better understand discrimination and workplace issues we NEED to consider GENDER, RACE, ETHNICITY AND CULTURE!

do we need diversity daly p 88 102
Do we need diversity??(Daly p. 88-102)
  • Society keeps telling us ___________
  • What is diversity?
diversity refers to
Diversity refers to…
  • Ethnicity
  • Racial origin
  • Sexual orientation
  • Gender
  • But also…
what does the firm want to achieve
What does the firm want to achieve?
  • Does diversity increase this?
  • Example: Do women run the airlines??
the changing organization cont
The changing organization cont.
  • Middle management cut out
  • Workplace is now a community
  • Is the airline industry a community?
problems with lack of diversity
Problems with lack of diversity
  • Public welfare
  • Need for evaluation and accountability
  • Stereotyping professions
impacts of changing workplace
Impacts of changing workplace
  • Women are seen as flexible in their working lives
  • Women are seen as more attractive employees
changing view of management
Changing view of management
  • Past:
  • Present/Future:
division of labor between work and household responsibilities
Division of Labor between work and household responsibilities
  • Old ideology:
  • Problems:
gender gap in earnings
Gender Gap in Earnings
  • Since 1955 earnings has been tracked to see if there is a “__________________”
important points
Important Points
  • If gender gap = 64%
  • Must be ___________________
example
Example
  • Female wage = 24561
  • Male wage = 32472
  • Gender earnings ratio?
  • Gender wage gap?
how has the earnings ratio changed
How has the earnings ratio changed?
  • Relatively constant at __________
  • Early 1980s decreased to ________
  • Increased steadily since then to _______ in 1994
  • 1999 the gap was calculated as _______
important things to remember
Important things to remember
  • Increases in the the gender earning ratio could also mean ______________-
earnings ratio and age
Earnings ratio and Age

female-male

earnings ratio

16-24

.70

retirement

.51

Midlife

Age

how vary by race
How vary by race?
  • Same basic pattern as white workers exists for Hispanic and Asian workers
  • Education influences differ by gender within the race
slide165
Goal
  • See what is
  • Evaluate why they are there
remember
Remember
  • Female-Male earnings ratio must be between two __________ people with ____________ to say anything about the number
  • Why?
if compare overall male and female wages
If compare OVERALL male and female wages…
  • Gap looks bigger than it actually is
  • Why??
so what is the deal
So what is the deal??
  • BUT…labor force participation of women has been increasing, so why hasn’t the earnings ratio increased faster?
slide171
Men??
  • Why do these types of jobs have a higher pay scale?
  • How are wages determined??
the labor market
The Labor Market
  • Who demands labor?
  • Who supplies labor?
labor demand curve
Labor Demand Curve
  • Graphical representation of the labor demand schedule
  • Why type of relationship do you expect wage and number of workers to have?
slide175

Wage

40

30

20

10

DL

10

20

30

40

Number of Workers

labor supply curve
Labor Supply Curve
  • What type of relationship do we have between wage and number of workers?
slide178

SL

Wage

40

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

Number of Workers

slide180
But…
  • There is only one price where SL=DL
  • This is called the _______________
  • The market is always working towards this wage
scissors and economics
Scissors and economics?
  • Alfred Marshall compared Supply and demand to a pair of scissors
what determines the wage
What determines the wage?

Wage

SL

DL

Number of Workers

equilibrium
Equilibrium
  • Also called the market clearing wage
moving to equilibrium
Moving to Equilibrium

Wage

SL

DL

Number of Workers

moving to equilibrium1
Moving to Equilibrium
  • If we have a surplus, wage must _______ to get to equilibrium.
  • If we have a shortage, wage must _______ to get to equilibrium.
why the difference1
Why the difference?
  • Labor force structure
  • Occupation sex structure
what can explain the differences
What can explain the differences?
  • Two theories…
  • Individualist theory
so why are women are in the low wage occupations
So…why are women are in the “low wage” occupations??
  • Remember the female occupation formula??
atrophy
Atrophy
  • How many of you took 5th grade math?
  • It was claimed that the shepherd was the shepherd of 2000 sheep. The shepherd exclaimed, "I am not the shepherd of two thousand sheep!" Pointing to his flock, he added, "If I had that many sheep plus another flock as large as that, then again half as many as I have out there, I would be the shepherd of two thousand sheep." How many sheep were in the shepherd's flock?
if true
If true…
  • Why is the gender gap decreasing???
  • Are women now making different (better) choices?
types of institutionalist theories
Types of Institutionalist theories
  • Labor market segmenting theories
second type
Second type
  • Occupation Segregation
slide200

Wage

Wage

Ls

Ls

W1

W1

Ld

Ld

1

# workers

1

# workers

Firm does not Discriminate

Firm Discriminates

third type of institutionalist theory
Third type of Institutionalist theory
  • Statistical discrimination
how convert
How convert??
  • Looks at how a cost of a ___________ purchased in some _________ changes over time
  • Percent changes in the CPI measure ________
  • How do you calculate a percent change?
example1
Example
  • 1970 CPI = 38.8
  • 1999 CPI = 167
  • Was there a little or much inflation??
  • Milk prices were $1.05 in 1999 and $0.65 in 1970
  • Was milk more expensive in 1999?
slide207
What is 1999 milk in 1970 dollars?
  • What was 1970 milk in 1999 dollars?
slide208
What is a real wage?
  • What is a wage?
what is a economic reason for the wage gap
What is a ECONOMIC reason for the wage gap?
  • Would you expect an editor to get paid $100,000? A neurosurgeon?
  • What is the difference?
human capital
Human Capital
  • How does it relate to skill level?
  • How does it relate to wage?
how does hc relate to women and wage gap
How does HC relate to women and wage gap?
  • Why isn’t wage gap closer to zero?
losses to men are gains to women
Losses to men are gains to women
  • Wage gap decreased when middle management began to be cut out
averages are deceptive
Averages are deceptive
  • 4 student’s exam grades: 100,75,73,69
  • Throw out 100
important points1
Important Points
  • If only look at return to HC ______________________________
  • If look at ________________ see CHOICE brings about return differences
what types of choices come out of this
What types of choices come out of this?
  • If you don’t expect to work as many years do you get as much HC?
  • Atrophy
  • How do these decision affect wages?
atrophy1
Atrophy

Uncle Henry was driving to Halifax when he spotted a big green gorilla on the side of the road. He screeched to a stop, jumped out of his car. He saw the outline of a number on the gorilla. He couldn't quite see the number, but he knew it was a 4 digit number. And:

  • He remembered seeing a number 1.
  • In the hundred's place he remembers the number is 3 times the number in the thousand's place.

3) He said the number in the one's place is 4 times the number in the ten's place.

4) Finally he said the number 2 is sitting in the thousand's place.

What is the number?

slide221

Male

earnings

k

Female

d

a

c

b

age

slide222
So…
  • Wage gap is greater because of _______________between men and women NOT ________________
  • Second reason…
slide223

Now…

Differences in Occupations and Earnings

where does gender difference in earnings come from
Where does gender difference in earnings come from?
  • We will deal with the less subjective one first
why might men s and women s tastes for occupations differ
Why might men’s and women’s tastes for occupations differ?
  • Reasons?
  • How do these reasons affect wage?
  • What are some problems with trying to identify differences in “tastes” between men and women?
  • What about innate ability?
are differences due to choice or societal discrimination
Are differences due to choice or societal discrimination?
  • What is societal discrimination?
  • How does it shape actions and ideals?
more direct way to look at differences
More direct way to look at differences…
  • Human Capital
  • How does physical capital differ from human capital?
physical vs human capital cont
Physical vs Human Capital cont.
  • Why does the government give so much money to students???
  • Why don’t banks readily give students money for college??
why do men and women gain different amount of education
Why do men and women gain different amount of education?
  • Men and women equally likely to finish high school
  • Men are more likely to go to college
  • Men are most likely to complete all four years of college in sequence
table
Table
  • Differences small (1-3%) at High School Level
  • 4-6% at the college level
  • Less high school drop outs in 1995 than 1970
  • Higher probability of attending at least some college in 1995 than 1970
differences by race
Differences by Race
  • Overall pattern similar to white trend
  • Blacks and Hispanics vs. white
attainment is only half the story
Attainment is only half the story
  • Beginning in high school…
  • Girls…less natural science and mathematics
  • 1972 – girls took 20% fewer semesters in these subjects than boys
  • 1992 – girls took 98% as many as boys
slide234
So…
  • Gap appears to be closing
  • Men and women appear to be choosing similar disciplines but earnings differentials still exist
why does education increase wage
Why does education increase wage?
  • Where does the productivity come from?
  • What “types” of productivity?
  • So does education act as a signal to your potential employer?
  • What types of signals?
how do employers choose employees
How do employers “choose” employees?
  • Use a screening device
  • Problem is ______________
  • Resume and References
review
Review…
  • Men and women differ as to investment in human capital and major area of study
children s games and movies
Children’s games and movies
  • Do stereotypes still exist???
  • Videos
  • Barbie and GI Joe
slide240

Barbie in the 60’s

Barbie in the 70’s

and 80’s

Barbie in the 90’s

slide241

GI Joe in 2001

GI Joe in the 80’s and 90’s

social influences
Social Influences
  • May not be explicit but influential in shaping behavior
    • Examples?
  • Shapes our ideas of what masculine and feminine traits “should” be
what does this influence
What does this influence?
  • Male or female?
  • If you expect a certain type of person and get the opposite your experience may be changed (+ or –)
so isn t this discrimination
So isn’t this discrimination?
  • Title IX of the Educational Amendments (to the Civil Rights Act of 1964)
  • What does it do?
applies to all educational institutions
Applies to all educational institutions
  • Higher education –
  • Exempt are single sex school
  • Major impact on ___________
  • Virginia Military Institute and Citadel
on the job training ojt
On the Job Training (OJT)
  • Formal
  • Informal
  • Job Specific
  • General
how differ between the genders
How differ between the genders?
  • Male’s OJT __________ Women’s OJT
  • Why?
  • Women have less experience than men
  • 1966 women averaged 3.45 years less than men
  • 1991 women averaged 2.23 years less than men
  • Difference but narrowing
sex segregation of occupations
Sex Segregation of Occupations
  • Second reason for the wage gap
  • What was the first??
  • Basic “male jobs”
  • Basic “female jobs”
  • Not all people in these professions are Male (Female) but a large % --- Why??
why do we see this segregation
Why do we see this segregation?

Three aspects of sex segregation

how do we break up occupations
How do we break up occupations?
  • How you break up can skew the number and the interpretation
  • Example:
findings2
Findings
  • Male jobs –
  • Female jobs –
  • Management
recent trends
Recent trends
  • 1997 – __________ of women would have had to change occupations to be distributed in the same manner of men
  • Index of Segregation was ___________
  • Even though women have been breaking into “male jobs” we still have inequality
question1

Question

If we rid sex segregation will we have gender equality in earnings??

slide256
So…
  • __________ can play a role in occupational choice
  • Occupational segregation seems to be decreasing
    • New problem:
  • Table
men and women are in different levels of the same job
Men and women are in different levels of the same job
  • What was that called?
  • Is it differences in HC?
  • Is it discrimination at the hiring level?
  • Questions to address:
    • To what extent does gender bias occur?
    • What variables moderate the effect of applicants gender on interviewers judgments?
    • How does this discrimination take place?
    • How does research methods affect findings?
extent of problem
Extent of problem
  • Subjective research so extent of problem is not agreed upon
  • 0-4% of gender difference
  • What is the gender bias?
variables
Variables
  • Applicant characteristics
  • Recruiter characteristics
  • Situational factors
how does discrimination take place
How does discrimination take place?
  • Questions posed to candidates
  • Do you plan on having children?
  • Are you married?
research methodology
Research Methodology
  • Real interviewer information vs. case study interviewer
  • Simulated Applicants
  • 20 methods used in an attempt to see how discriminatory the interview process can be
  • Why so little agreement???
what characteristics are looked at
What characteristics are looked at?
  • Attractiveness
  • Weight
  • Dress
slide264
Sexual orientation
  • Communication Skills
recruiter characteristics
Recruiter Characteristics
  • Demographic similarity
  • Conservative vs. liberal
situational factors
Situational Factors
  • Higher probability of being hired if
  • Interviewer has “ideal” prototype in mind
gender qualities
Gender qualities
  • Feminine
  • Masculine
studies
Studies
  • Hiring in restaurants
  • Hispanic males vs. Anglo with similar labor market qualifications
findings3
Findings
  • Anglo more likely to be successful
  • Hard to access if the discrimination is on the employer, employee, or customer level
  • Employer is carrying out the discrimination, but the motive is unclear
gender group composition

Gender GroupComposition

And Work Group Relations

how does the workforce change when the composition changes
How does the workforce change when the composition changes?
  • What could happen if employees are not happy (satisfied) with their job?
  • Look at how the environment changes if the percentages of females (males) in the workplace changes
abstract way to look at workforce
Abstract way to look at workforce
  • Asking “what if”…
  • Look at variables such as:
personality types
Personality Types
  • Type A
  • Type B
slide275

Free and spontaneous life; thrive on change

Take charge type of person; put little faith in luck

And more in your own deeds

What could be the outcome of this team?

slide276

Free and spontaneous life; thrive on change

Willing to accept risks for interesting and varied

Work. Routine has a paralyzing effect on you

What could be the outcome of this team?

does personality matter
Does Personality Matter?
  • Dealing with Productivity
  • Men and women have different personalities
  • Different proportions of men and women will alter the environments of the workplace….but how???
  • 5 theories
two types of relationships
Two types of relationships

Level of

Discrimination

Minority size

economic resources cont
Economic Resources cont.
  • Why??
  • What would be considered success?
  • Economic term for ultimate outcome of success??
  • But…if not successful what happens once minority group grows?
political power
Political Power

Level of

Discrimination

Minority size

political power cont
Political Power cont.
  • What would happen to discrimination as minority size increases?
  • Does this discrimination ever decrease as size of minority group increases?
  • Alliance
with group competition
With Group Competition…
  • Minority group
  • Dominate Group towards minority group
self interest
Self Interest
  • Goal:
  • What feeling are towards members of your group?
  • Members of other groups?
application
Application
  • Small number of women
  • As number of women increase
who is the comparison group
Who is the comparison group?
  • Depends on the group composition
  • High % of men?
  • High % of women?
students
Students
  • More female teachers
  • Less female teachers
what part of the population is homosexual or bisexual
What part of the population is homosexual or bisexual?
  • Population =
  • Homosexual or Bisexual population =
  • Or about _______
  • Very unlikely that you will never come in contact with a person from this group
  • Will you know???
statistics
Statistics
  • 1992
  • 1996
    • Why is there still verbal and physical violence then?
    • Why does a homosexual relationship not receive the same benefits as a heterosexual relationship?
why does sexual identity have such a large impact
Why does sexual identity have such a large impact?
  • This is just ONE characteristic of a person.
  • Normal perception ________________
  • Slang terms…
why are people heterosexual
Why are people heterosexual?
  • Biological or Societal??
  • Four stages of the “gay process”
homophobia
Homophobia
  • Four types
homophobia cont
Homophobia cont.
  • Tied to culturally appropriate and sanctioned gender and sexual identities
  • Homophobia is towards anyone who violates these culturally sanctioned norms even if not homosexual
  • May result in sexual harassment
workplace
Workplace
  • Provides setting for all four types of homophobia
  • Why??
  • How??
impacts on homosexual
Impacts on homosexual
  • Remain “in the closet” (at least in the workplace)
  • Why?
problem
Problem
  • Two sides of workplace policies
slide312
So…
  • Double Jeopardy again
  • Double with…
    • Gender
    • Race
    • HIV status
    • Disability
    • Ethnicity
    • Culture
protection legislation
Protection Legislation
  • Federal Legislation was attempted
    • What was the aim?
    • Why did it fail?
  • 25% of Fortune 1000 companies have some policy that prohibits homosexual discrimination
is legislation fair

Fair??

Is Legislation Fair?

Fair??

Fair??

  • Homosexuals must sign affidavit

Fair??

Fair??

Fair??

Fair??

Fair??

Fair??

Fair??

is this really a problem
Is this really a problem?
  • Estimates
  • Recent issues
    • Anita Hill vs. Clarence Thomas
    • Paula Jones vs. Bill Clinton
two part
Two part
  • Objective
  • Subjective
legal side
Legal side
  • Person must ____________ he/she was treated adversely
  • Problem – Sexual harassment means different things to different people
  • What is the definition of reasonable?
what is sexual harassment
What is Sexual Harassment?
  • Can be answered in from three views
conceptual behavioral cont
Conceptual (behavioral )cont.
  • When does sexual harassment become a problem?
u s equal employment opportunity commission eeoc legal definition
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) legal definition
  • Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature is sexual harassment if:
    • Explicit or implicit term or condition for employment
    • Yes or no influences important decisions
    • Conduct interferes with work performance creating a hostile, intimidating or offensive working condition
what causes sexual harassment
What “causes” Sexual Harassment?
  • Individual perspective
    • What causes an action to be labeled as sexual harassment?
how many actually report
How many actually report?
  • ________________
  • Why so low??
same sex sexual harassment
Same Sex Sexual Harassment
  • Normal Assumption
  • Same Sex Sexual Harassment
how do these differ
How do these differ?
  • Workplace romance
  • Sexual Harassment
  • Which do you think comes first?
to know what is not acceptable one must first know what is acceptable given the circumstances

“To know what is not acceptable one must first know what is acceptable given the circumstances”

examples
Examples
  • Denise
    • 25 year old African-American woman
  • Angela
    • 28 year old Hispanic woman
  • Is there a racial and gender undertone going on??
  • Are some races more prone to sexual harassment?
questions
Questions???
  • Why do we crave this information?
  • Why is there little research on workplace romances??
  • Why should (if they should) organizations be talking about it???
examples of banning relationships
Examples of banning relationships
  • Wal-Mart
  • U.S. armed forces
  • Air Force
main difference
Main difference
  • No argument that organizational relationships should exist
  • Many arguments that romantic relationships shouldn’t exist
what leads to romantic relationships
What leads to romantic relationships?
  • Intimacy
  • Passion
  • Decision/commitment
proximity
Proximity
  • Two types
what do individuals receive from relationship
What do individuals receive from relationship?
  • Job motives
  • Ego motives
  • Love motives
how should firm respond
How should firm respond?
  • Three ways to respond
  • Conservative firm
important question

Important question…

If firm is not affected explicitly by relationship should we intervene?

what does equal mean
What does equal mean?
  • Definition
  • Are all workers the same???
  • Do we rather want fair treatment?
  • Definition of fair
equal pay act of 1963
Equal Pay Act of 1963
  • What is equal work?
title vii of the civil right act 1965
Title VII of the Civil Right Act (1965)
  • Original
  • Amendments
  • Who does it cover?
  • Who oversees actions?
two types of discrimination
Two Types of Discrimination
  • Disparate Treatment
  • Disparate Impact
how effective are the policies
How effective are the policies?
  • Equal Pay Act
  • Title VII
affirmative action
Affirmative Action
  • Goal
  • Refers to
who are the target groups
Who are the target groups
  • African Americans
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Asian Americans
  • Native Americans
  • White Women