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Chapter 11 Powerpoint. Section 1—The French Revolution. 1789: year of revolution (America and France) French society was divided into the Three Estates: 1 st Estate=clergy. 2 nd Estate=nobility. 3 rd Estate=commoners. All taxation occurred at the 3 rd Estate.

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section 1 the french revolution
Section 1—The French Revolution
  • 1789: year of revolution (America and France)
  • French society was divided into the Three Estates: 1st Estate=clergy. 2nd Estate=nobility. 3rd Estate=commoners.
  • All taxation occurred at the 3rd Estate.
  • The bourgeoisie was the middle class of the Third Estate.
  • The conflict between classes was the long term cause of the French Revolution.
  • The immediate cause of the French Revolution was the near collapse of government finances.
  • Crop failures and extreme government spending forced the government to increase taxes at a time when most could not survive.
the national assembly
The National Assembly
  • The three estates met at Versailles in 1789. The first and second estate had about 300 delegates each.
  • The 3rd estate had about 600. Voting was in a way in which each estate got one vote---thus outnumbering the 3rd estate.
  • The 3rd estate wanted a constitutional government that would force the 1st and 2nd to pay taxes also.
  • The king forced the estates to only have one vote, ensuring the old system would stay in place.
  • The 3rd estate reacted by having a meeting and swearing to meet until a French Constitution was drafted. This oath is called the Tennis Court Oath.
  • Louis 16th prepared to use force on the 3rd Estate. However, on July 14th a mob of Parisians stormed the Bastille and destroyed it.
  • The storming of the Bastille collapsed royal authority bc the king could not enforce his will.
  • The storming of the Bastille caused the Revolution to begin as peasants revolted and began to fight rebellions.
the declaration of the rights of man
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
  • It was inspired by the American Declaration of Independence and the Constitution (also the English Bill of Rights).
  • It proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, access to public office based on talent, and an end to exemption from taxes.
  • Olympe de Gouges wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen. She used the same argument that men did and said women should not be excluded.
the king concedes
The King Concedes
  • Louis 16th was forced to concede when women marched on his palace and told him how their children were starving bc of the Revolution.
  • They insisted he go to Paris to show his support for the National Assembly.
  • He brought flour for the crowd, were they became prisoners.
  • Eventually a group known as the sans-culottes took power leading to a more radical time in France’s history.
  • The sans-culottes saw themselves as “ordinary patriots without the fine clothes.”
section 2
Section 2
  • The National Convention of France had to decide what to do with Louis XVI.
  • Two groups, the Girondins and the Mountain argued over what to do with him.
  • Eventually the Mountain won and Louis was executed using the guillotine.
  • Countries in Europe were horrified that Louis had been executed. Many countries decided to invade France. To meet this crisis, the National Convention gave the Committee of Public Safety more power.
  • Maximilien Robespierre became its leader.
the reign of terror
The Reign of Terror
  • The Committee of Public Safety took control from 1793-1794.
  • Perceived internal enemies were prosecuted and killed. 40,000 were killed, mostly with the guillotine.
  • Marie Antoinette and Olympe de Gouges were two famous women killed during this time.
  • Robespierre tried to do away with Christianity by renaming the months, adding 10 days to the week (to do away with Sunday) and he renamed churches and cathedrals to places of “reason.”
  • Ultimately it failed because most of France was Catholic and people did not want to give it up.
the end of the reign of terror
The End of the Reign of Terror
  • To counter the invasion by the European nations, France called for all men to fight for France.
  • This new nationalism led to 1 million new fighters that beat back the invasion.
  • The Reign ended when members of the National Convention that feared Robespierre decided to put him to death.
  • With his death, the Reign effectively ended.
  • Following the end of the Reign of Terror, a new Directory was set up. It and the new legislature ruled France.
  • The Directory would be overthrown in 1799 by the general Napoleon Bonaparte.
section 3 napoleon bonaparte
Section 3 Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Napoleon Bonaparte dominated France from 1799 to 1815.
  • He took power in 1799 by helping with a coup d'état that formed the new government called a consulate.
  • He held absolute power. In 1802 he was made consul for life and later crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I.
  • He claimed to have preserved the ideals of the revolution (freedom, liberty).
  • He claimed this because he accomplished the following*He recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France which caused the Church and state to work together.* He rewrote France’s laws from 300 different legal systems to 7 law codes.

*The most important code was the Civil or Napoleonic Code. It said all citizens were equal, all could choose their profession, all had religious toleration, and it abolished serfdom and feudalism.

*the code further restricted women by limiting many of their rights.

* All promotions in the government were based on ability…nothing else. The new aristocracy was based on merit in the state service….military officers were held in high regard.

preserver of the revolution
Preserver of the Revolution?
  • Yes
  • 1. His domestic policies preserved aspects of the revolution like his Civil Code.
  • 2. Government careers and the aristocracy began to take people based on ability…not birth.
  • No
  • He destroyed any new rights women gained.
  • Liberty was replaced by a despotism that grew arbitrary.
  • He shut down 60 of the 73 newspapers and forced all manuscripts to be approved by the government.
napoleon s empire
Napoleon’s Empire
  • Napoleon eventually defeated the coalition of Britain, Austria Russia, Sweden, and Prussia in 1803.
  • His Grand Empire had three parts—the French Empire, dependant states, and allied states.
  • He sought to spread legal equality, religious toleration, and economic freedom.
  • His empire crumbled for two reasons, 1. Great Britain survived, 2. the force of nationalism.
  • A victory by the British in the Battle of Trafalgar vs. France and Spain cemented that G.B. would survive.
  • Also, when Napoleon told other countries that they could not trade with Britain, many did not like it and did so anyway.
the fall of napoleon
The Fall of Napoleon
  • Napoleon invaded Russia because they refused to join the Continental System. He knew if they refused all would opt out of it.
  • Instead of fighting, the Russians retreated and burned all towns as they retreated.
  • The French were not prepared for the Russian winter. They began their “Great Retreat” across Russia. Only 40,000 survived .
  • The other countries of Europe rose up against Napoleon and captured Paris and sent him to Elba.
  • Napoleon escaped and the military marched with him back to Paris and he retook the government.
  • At Waterloo (Belgium), the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon’s army. This time, they exiled him to St. Helena.