Urban Processes. Urban Processes can be seen as inward and outward movements. Inward Movement (Centripetal) Rural to urban migration, gentrification, re-urbanisation, urban renewal. Outward Movement (Centrifugal) Suburbanisation, urban sprawl, counter-urbanisation . Urban Processes.
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Urban Processes can be seen as inward and outward movements Inward Movement (Centripetal) Rural to urban migration, gentrification, re-urbanisation, urban renewal Outward Movement (Centrifugal) Suburbanisation, urban sprawl, counter-urbanisation
Urban Processes Suburbanisation Counter -urbanisation Urbanisation Sustainable city? Re - urbanisation
Urbanization is the increase in the percentage of a population living in settlements which could be classified as urban areas.
Reasons for Urbanisation Countries reach stage 2/3 of DTM Natural increase in population Rural to urban migration (push/pull factors, obstacles/barriers, Stepwise model, Zelinsky’s model, Lee’s Model, Turners model) Industrialisation
Urbanisation Leads to urban growth (the expansion of cities) Primate cities “Centres of production” Need for housing, and other urban services Informal sector, public housing Now mainly LEDCs and NICs Definition – Urban growth is the growth of cities in terms of size of land area and population.
Suburbanization is the increase in the numbers of people living in the residential areas near the edge of the city (suburbs) leading to the outward growth of urban areas.
Reasons for suburbanisation Rapid urban growth leads new residential areas being built in suburbs Social problems and overcrowding in inner city areas cause richer people to move to suburbs Improving public transport Linked to de-industrialization such as shipbuilding, warehouses or factories closing
Suburbanisation Urban sprawl Separate smaller settlements merge into larger multi-centric conurbations Pressure on rural/urban fringe Increased segregation A vicious circle of decline in inner city areas. “Donut cities”
Counterurbanization is the movement away from the urban centres to smaller towns and cities or rural areas
Reasons for counter-urbanisation Increased car ownership Increased wealth De-industrialisation Relocation of industry/employment to rural urban fringe Desire for safe, pleasant environment, the rural ideal/utopia Perception of urban areas as dangerous, high levels of crime, racial/ethnic problems – ‘white flight’ Change in tenure from public/renting to private ownership. Sell property and move out.
Counter-urbanisation People move to satellite settlements within the city’s sphere of influence Increased numbers of people commuting to work in the city Increased car use Transport triangle becomes bigger Rural areas become suburbanised Rural areas can become commuter /dormitory settlements Rural areas within a city’s sphere of influence can develop
Transport triangle WORK HOME LEISURE
Reason for re-urbanisation Parts of urban areas which have declined but still have an intrinsic value because of centrality or quality of housing stock attract people Government sees urban decline as a problem and invests money to regenerate an area Prestige project – Olympics Tertiary sector increases, restaurants, nightclubs and retailing attracting people
Re-urbanisation Cities become “centres of consumption” Gentrification – Richer people moving into poorer areas Run-down derelict parts of cities can be redeveloped Increased economic activity within cities Cities reinvent themselves as exciting vibrant places to live
Sustainable city Maintain population, particularly economically active people. Develop human resources. Economic growth. Infrastructure and urban services. Quality of life. Environmental impact. Ecological footprint. Circular metabolism. Green design and architecture. Energy efficiencies. Carbon neutral city. (Masdar)