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Indo-Europeans Migrate. The Indo-Europeans were a group of semi-nomadic people who came from the steppes-dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus Primarily pastoral, rode 2 wheeled chariots, lived in tribes and spoke forms of a language we call Indo-European

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Indo europeans migrate
Indo-Europeans Migrate

  • The Indo-Europeans were a group of semi-nomadic people who came from the steppes-dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus

  • Primarily pastoral, rode 2 wheeled chariots, lived in tribes and spoke forms of a language we call Indo-European

  • Left to escape invaders or get more food

  • Migrated outward between 1700 and 1200 B.C.

    • Hittites in Asia Minor (Anatolia)

    • Aryans in India

    • Minoans in the Aegean Sea (Mediterranean)

    • Phoenicians on Mediterranean coastlines (mainly Lebanon)

Compare and contrast hinduism and buddhism
Compare and contrast Hinduism and Buddhism

  • Thesis:

    • Answer question (no topics) 10pts _____

    • Fact/Opinion (1st sent.) 10pts _____

    • Significance (3rd sentience) 10pts _____

  • 1st topic sentence 10pts _____

  • Supporting factual information 10pts _____

  • 2nd topic sentence 10pts _____

  • Supporting factual information 10pts _____

  • 3rd topic sentence 10 pts _____

  • Supporting factual information 10pts _____

  • Conclusion 10pts _____

The qin dynasty
The Qin Dynasty

  • Emerged in western state of Qin and replaced the Zhou dynasty

  • Used legalist ideas to unify country

  • After ruling for 20 years, ruler changed his name to Shi Huangdi, which means “first emperor”

    • Attacked invaders and doubled the size of the empire

    • Made nobles move to the capital city so he could watch them

    • Sent his officials to control the captured lands

    • Had hundreds of Confucian scholars murdered, and “useless” books burned

  • Shi Huangdi established an autocracy- a government in which the ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner

Program of centralization
Program of Centralization

  • Built highway network, forced peasants to work

  • Had uniform standards for Chinese writing, law, currency, and weights and measures

  • Farming increased, trade increased, and merchant class was born

    • Harsh taxes and repression made Qin regime unpopular

  • Zhou dynasty had erected smaller walls to discourage attacks from the north

  • Thousands of peasants were told they must work on the wall or die

  • Many peasants died anyway completing the 1,400 mile Great Wall of China

    • After Shi Huangdi’s death empire was overrun by peasants from the land of Han

The han restore unity in china
The Han Restore Unity in China

  • After Shi Huandi’s death, peasants upset over years of high taxes, harsh labor quotas and a harsh penal system raised armies and fought over territory

  • After the civil war Liu Bang became the first emperor of the Han Dynasty

    • He created a centralized government through hundreds of local officials

    • Lowered taxes and softened harsh punishments

    • When he died his son became ruler in name, but Lu, his mother and Liu’s wife, was the real ruler

  • Ruled China for 400 years, many Chinese today refer to themselves as “people of the Han”

Han rulers
Han Rulers

  • Lu outlived her son and ruled through other children

    • Died in 180 B.C., her family members were executed

      • Occurred often in Han Dynasty, wives competed fiercely for emperor’s attention

  • Wudi, Liu Bang’s grandson reigned till 87 B.C. expanded the empire through war with nomadic raiders to the north and west

    • Colonized northeast (Manchuria and Korea), and areas in present day Vietnam

  • Considered emperor semi divine and accepted exercise of his power

    • Good emperor= peace and prosperity

    • Bad emperor= floods, earthquakes and famines

A highly structured government
A Highly Structured Government

  • Emperor relied on a complex bureaucracy which was expensive

  • Filled army ranks and expanded the Great Wall

  • Wudi’s government included civil service jobs- jobs that civilians obtained by taking examinations

    • Tested applicants knowledge of Confucianism

    • Schools were set up to teach Confucian beliefs

      • Few peasants could afford the education

    • System worked until 1912

  • Paper was invented in 105 A.D., helped spread education and spread bureaucracy

  • Other inventions: collar harness, perfected the plow, wheelbarrow, began to use watermills to grind grain

Commerce and culture
Commerce and Culture

  • Population swelled to 60 million

  • Government ran huge silk mills, valuable trading item

    • Creation of silk became a closely guarded secret

    • Traded along the Silk Roads- through Asia, India, and even Rome

      • Gold and turquoise bracelets were carried from Persia

      • Carried silk and spices to Rome on camel caravans

  • Women were supposed to obey their family in childhood and husbands in marriage

    • Could become Buddhist and Daoist nuns and get an education

Rebellion and restoration
Rebellion and Restoration

  • A family’s land was divided equally among all of the father’s male heirs

    • Small farmers often had to burrow money from large landowners. If they did not pay back the money, they lost possession of their land

    • Large landowners were not required to pay taxes. This meant the government had to impose higher taxes on the poor.

    • Gap between the rich and the poor increased

  • By 220 A.D. the Han Dynasty had disintegrated into three rival kingdoms