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The Cell Cycle. Mitosis Pg. 204- 210 in your book. Quick Facts About the Cell Cycle. The cell cycle is common to all living things It is a sequence of growth and division of a cell Two major periods of the cell cycle: I. Interphase II. Mitosis. Interphase.

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The cell cycle l.jpg

The Cell Cycle

Mitosis

Pg. 204- 210 in your book


Quick facts about the cell cycle l.jpg
Quick Facts About the Cell Cycle

  • The cell cycle is common to all living things

  • It is a sequence of growth and division of a cell

  • Two major periods of the cell cycle:

    I. Interphase

    II. Mitosis


Interphase l.jpg
Interphase

  • The time between cell division when a cell grows and replicates (makes copies of DNA)

  • The majority of a cell’s life is spent in interphase

    -Growth Phase I (G1): Proteins are made, the cell grows and organelles increase in size and number

    -Synthesis Phase (S)- DNA replicates; the purpose of this is so that the new cell can have the exact genetic copy

    -Growth Phase (G2)- more proteins are made, centrioles used for cell division are copied and being to make spindles



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Mitosis

-A continuous process that has four phases of the division of the nucleus

-This is the process where two daughter cells are formed, each containing a complete set of chromosomes.


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Prophase

  • The first stage of Mitosis

  • The longest mitotic phase

    1. Chromosomes appear because chromatin is condensing

    -What is condensing?

    Coiling and getting thicker

    2. Centrioles move to the poles of the cell

    3. Centrioles begin to form spindle

    -these attach to the centromeres which hold together the sister chromatids

    4. Nuclear membrane begins to disappear

    5. Nucleolus disappears



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Metaphase

  • Chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers by their centromeres

  • Chromosomes line up across the middle of the cell

    -Also known as the equator



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Anaphase

  • Chromosome separate and one sister chromatid of each pair moves to each pole of the cell



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Telophase

  • Chromosomes arrive at opposite ends of the cell

  • Two nuclei form

  • It’s the reverse of prophase



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Cytokinesis

  • Finally the end!

  • This is the division of cytoplasm

  • This happens in two different ways

    1. In animal cells- the cytoplasm and plasma membrane pinch in along the equator to create cleavage furrow

    2. In plant cells- cell plate forms along the equator

    -Plants have a rigid cell wall so the plasma membrane does not pinch in

    -A cell plate is laid down across the equator and a cell membrane forms around each cell and new cells walls form to complete the separation.


Plant cell cytokinesis vs animal cell cytokinesis l.jpg

Plant Cell

cytokinesis begins with a series of vesicles that form at the equator of the cell, which subsequently join until the cell is divided in two.

Animal Cell

cytokinesis starts with a cleavage furrow or indentation around the middle that eventually pinches in, dividing the cell in two

Plant Cell Cytokinesis vs. Animal Cell Cytokinesis


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Cell Cycle Summary

Interphase

  • G1 stage- Growth & development of the cellProtein synthesis

  • S-phase-Chromosome replication viaDNA synthesis

  • G2 stage- Growth & developmentOrganelle Replication

    Mitosis

    Prophase- Replicated chromosomes condense , Spindle fibers form

    Metaphase- Replicated chromosomes align at center

    Anaphase-Sister chromatids separateDaughter chromosomes move to poles

    Telophase- New nuclear membranes formSpindle fibers disappear

    Cytokinesis- Cell divides into two daughter cells


Now how am i supposed to remember all of this l.jpg
Now how am I supposed to remember all of this?

  • Remember PMAT

    -Prophase

    -Metaphase

    -Anaphase

    -Telophase

    (yes, I know it is simple but it also helped me remember!)

    -Just make sure to remember that Interphase comes before PMAT and Cytokinesis comes at the end!


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Now the fun begins!!

  • You get to make a cell cycle booklet!

    -You are going to make a booklet of the cell cycle, making sure to include interphase and mitosis

    -Interphase should include the 3 stages (draw and briefly describe events for G1, S and G2 phases)

    -Draw, label and briefly describe the stages of mitosis (If you draw it, you must label it!)

    -The last page of your booklet should show cytokinesis for both animal and plant cells

    -Structures to be labeled:

    Nucleolus, Centriole, Spindle Fibers, Daughter Cells, Chromatin, Centromere, Cleavage Furrow, Nucleus, Sister chromatids, Cell plate

    Things to really pay attention to that you will be graded on!

    -Accuracy

    -Neatness

    -Making sure all requirements are met above!


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