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American Life in the 17 th Century. Life in the Chesapeake. Location: Maryland and Virginia area Disease: typhoid, dysentery, malaria Life span: 40 to 50 years Family Life: Men outnumbered the women (6:1) 1/3 of women are pregnant on their wedding day Tobacco Economy: Exports rose from

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life in the chesapeake
Life in the Chesapeake
  • Location: Maryland and Virginia area
  • Disease: typhoid, dysentery, malaria
  • Life span: 40 to 50 years
  • Family Life: Men outnumbered the women (6:1) 1/3 of women are pregnant on their wedding day
  • Tobacco Economy: Exports rose from

1.5 million pounds of tobacco annually in the 1630s to 40 million pounds in 1700

Problem: Production increases – prices fall

Solution: keep planting and producing

HEADRIGHT SYSTEM:

Purpose: growth for the Chesapeake Area

Aristocrat (rich) sponsors an indentured servant to America, that aristocrat earns the right to purchase 50 acres of land

PROBLEM: Rich are gobbling up the land….poor people are left out!

Remember: indentured servants vs. African slaves

frustration and bacon s rebellion
Frustration and Bacon’s Rebellion
  • Chesapeake Men: homeless, landless, no woman and angry….so let’s get land and some women

BACON’S REBELLION:

1676 – 1,000 man revolt

against Governor William Berkeley

Governor Berkeley: great relationship with the Native Americans (fur-trading)

Goal of Bacon’s Rebellion: LAND FROM INDIANS

End of Rebellion: Bacon dies of disease and Governor Berkeley takes over and crushes the rebellious tide.

Psychological legacy: lingering fear of revolt and lawlessness in the minds of the upper class.

colonial slavery
Colonial Slavery

1670 – 1680s – African American slaves made up 7% of Southern population

  • Wages in England went up, so fewer young men came to America.
  • Americans were fearful of another Bacon-like revolt.
  • In the mid-1680s, African American slaves coming to America outnumbered white immigrants for the first time.
  • Simply put, in the 1680s, the African slave trade quickened considerably.

Reference: MIDDLE PASSAGE (WEST AFRICA TO WEST INDIES) = seasoning of slaves while in West Indies

Largest import cities: Charleston, SC and Newport, RI

african american revolts
African American Revolts
  • Occasionally revolts occurred / though scattered and controlled quickly
  • Stono River Revolt:
    • South Carolinian slaves try to walk to Spanish owned Florida, but captured but state militia and sent back into captivity
southern society
Southern Society
  • Rich vs. poor and gap was widening

Social Hierarchy

(1) FFV’s: (Virginia) land owners / strong voice in the House of Burgesses (fairness?) Nicknamed the FFV’s (First Families of Virginia)

(2) Small Farmers: largest social groups / owned small plots of land and owned 1 – 2 slaves

(3) Landless Whites: freed indentured servants

(4) Slaves: no rights and no hope of gaining any

Remember: Urban Sprawl DID NOT occur – Why?

__________________________________________________

new england society
New England Society
  • Climate and conditions were MUCH BETTER than the Southern society
  • Invention of Grandparents! (life expectancy)
  • Bible Commonwealth: laws to benefit the common good based on biblical ties
  • Main agenda: protect the sacred bond of family and marriage
  • This was illustrated in Nathaniel Hawthorne’sThe Scarlet Letter where the heroine is forced to wear a bright red “A” on her chest to announce her sin of adultery.
life in the new england colonies
Life in the New England Colonies
  • Urban Sprawl DID work in this area

(compare to South)

Characteristics: structured and ordered

(town squares, churches, homes, shops….)

Most Valued: EDUCATION

Lower populated areas: primary schools

Higher populated areas: secondary schools

HARVARD COLLEGE: 1636 – America’s OLDEST college

Main motivation: train men for the ministry

Church connection: a church would give an understanding of self-government….feeds into society

the half way covenant
The Half-Way Covenant

Jeremiad: a stern, old-fashioned scolding

  • The ambition was to corral straying souls and return them to the “straight-and-narrow.”

Paradox: Puritan leaders and preachers began to loosen their grip on church membership =

Half-Way Covenant

*Half-way status with the church

17th century society saw everything through religious eyes so…..

salem witch trials
Salem Witch Trials

In 1692, a few girls claimed to have been bewitched by a Caribbean woman practicing voodoo.

Names were named, rumors spread, and innocent people were accused of being witches.

Hysteria took hold and twenty people were

executed.

By 1693, the Salem residents saw the

recklessness for what it was and called it off.

new england way of life
New England Way of Life
  • Why not focus on agriculture? Problematic soil
  • Some farms: so small that it couldn’t generate the economy like a plantation-style like the South
  • Northern Slavery: tried but not needed
  • Religious purposes
  • Not economically needed

Result: less ethnically diverse than South

Major Industry: Fishing! (God and Cod)

from africa to african americans
From Africa to African-Americans
  • African culture brought across the ocean: language, music, food, amongst many numerous things
  • Africans worked in South Carolina rice fields because of
  • Their knowledge of the crop
  • Their resistance to disease (immunity) / as compared to Native Americans

Assignment: Read p. 74 and 75 to come up with a well-rounded response to the following question

*Essential Question: Evaluate how African men and women continued to have a deep cultural tie to their Motherland, and how African culture influenced the social makeup of America.

Length: ½ page (due today)

*Please do not rewrite what you read / make sure you answer the actual question

new england v middle v south
New England V. Middle V. South
  • Compare the ESPN of colonial life

ESPN:

(E) Economic, (S) Social, (P) Political, and the

(N) Environmental issues and themes of each area of Colonial America.

DO NOT be afraid to draw upon what you already know.

Purple paper up frontfor gridding