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Unit 4: Cold War Foreign Policy

Unit 4: Cold War Foreign Policy

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Unit 4: Cold War Foreign Policy

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  1. Unit 4: Cold War Foreign Policy Learning Targets 1 - 18

  2. 1. I can define communism. • communism • In THEORY … • the common ownership of the means of production and distribution of wealth • a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed • produces a classless society • postulated by Karl Marx 

  3. 2. I can define capitalism. • capitalism • In THEORY … • the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of wealth • a system in which goods/services are owned/provided by private individuals • decisions regarding prices, wages, taxes, etc … determined by an unregulated market • laws of supply & demand • laissez faire • “let alone”, “hands-off” • policy of non-governmental interference • in economic/social life of the nation • postulated by Adam Smith – “The Wealth of Nations” 

  4. 3. I can explain the differences between communism and Communism. communism Communism • In THEORY … • the common ownership of the means of production and distribution of wealth • a system in which goods are owned in common and are available to all as needed • produces a classless society • “heaven” • In PRACTICE … • system of totalitarian dictatorships established after WWII • Stalin’s Soviet Union • Eastern European nations under Soviet control • Poland, East Germany, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania • Hungary 1956, Czechoslovakia 1968, • state ownership of property (socialism) • human rights/civil liberties restricted

  5. 3. I can explain the differences between communism and Communism. communism Communism • In THEORY … • “heaven” • In PRACTICE … • totalitarianism

  6. 4. I can analyze why the U.S. was involved in the Cold War. • Russian Revolution – 1917 • Vladimir Lenin’s protestations: • abolish private property! • repudiate war debts! • spread the revolution over the world! • free oppressed peoples • sent shudders throughout imperial capitalists • set up a race for resources worldwide between capitalist and communist nations • “The Cold War” • ideological war of words

  7. 4. I can analyze why the U.S. was involved in the Cold War. • divergent political system • USA • multi/two party system • republic (representative democracy) • people rule through their elected representatives • USSR • one party system • Communist Party • State aim of spreading communist revolution to countries under imperialist control • totalitarian dictatorship, one party rule

  8. 4. I can analyze why the U.S. was involved in the Cold War. • divergent economic system • USA • capitalistic • free enterprise system • need of raw materials, markets • imperialistic • from USSR point of view • USSR • socialistic, (communism in name only) • abolish private property • major industries “nationalized”: mining, transportation, manufacturing, etc... • “nationalized”: placed under governmental control

  9. 4. I can analyze why the U.S. was involved in the Cold War. • divergent social system • USA • free, open society • democratic, majority rule • government of laws, not men • all considered equal before the law • USSR • authoritarian/totalitarian • government controls all aspects of political, social, economic life • human rights/civil liberties restricted

  10. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S. • McCarthyism • named for Senator Joseph McCarthy , (R) Wisconsin • the practice of making unsubstantiated charges against someone • charged State Dept & US Army with containing communist sympathizers

  11. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S. • 1954 –televised Army-McCarthy hearings • McCarthy charged that one of the Army’s attorneys had ties to a Communist organization • Army lawyer Joseph Welch responded with the immortal lines that ultimately ended McCarthy's career: • "Until this moment, Senator, I think I never really gauged your cruelty or your recklessness.“ • When McCarthy tried to continue his attack, Welch angrily interrupted, • “Senator, may we not drop this? We know he belonged to the Lawyers Guild. Let us not assassinate this lad further, Senator. You've done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?” • “censured” by his Senate colleagues – 1954 • died in 1957 – age 48

  12. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S.. • H.U.A.C • House Un-American Activities Committee • investigated 43 members of Hollywood film industry • writers, actors, producers, directors, etc… • wanted to rid Hollywood of suspected Communist influences • Hollywood Ten • determined “unfriendly” • refused to answer questions from H.U.A.C. • pleaded the 5th Amendment • right not to be a witness against yourself • blacklisted • a list of people condemned for having a Communist background • careers ruined as they were not hired to work in Hollywood

  13. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S.. • H.U.A.C • the “Hollywood Ten”

  14. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S..

  15. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S.. • The following transcript of an excerpt from the interrogation of screenwriter John Howard Lawson by HUAC chairman J. Parnell Thomas gives an example of an alternative wording of the question and a sense of the tenor of some of the exchanges: • Thomas: Are you a member of the Communist Party or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?Lawson: It's unfortunate and tragic that I have to teach this committee the basic principles of Americanism.Thomas: That's not the question. That's not the question. The question is—have you ever been a member of the Communist Party?Lawson: I am framing my answer in the only way in which any American citizen can frame his answer to...Thomas: Then you deny it?Lawson: ...a question that invades his...absolutely invades his privacy.Thomas: Then you deny... You refuse to answer that question, is that correct?Lawson: I have told you that I will offer my beliefs, my affiliations and everything else to the American public and they will know where I stand as they do from what I have written.Thomas: Stand away from the stand...Lawson: I have written for Americanism for many years...Thomas: Stand away from the stand...Lawson: And I shall continue to fight for the Bill of Rights, which you are trying to destroy.Thomas: Officer, take this man away from the stand.

  16. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S.. • Nuclear Arms Race • US atomic bombings of Japan – 1945 • J. Robert Oppenheimer  • Director of Manhattan Project • code name for US effort to build atomic bomb • “We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried, most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad-Gita... Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.” • “Mr. President, I have blood on my hands.”

  17. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S.. • Soviet detonation of atomic bomb – 1949 • believed Russia was 3-5 years away from such development • Fall of China – 1949 • to Communism • Mao Zedong • defeats Chaing Kai-Shek • backed by the US • thermonuclear/hydrogen bomb/H-Bomb • USA - 1952 • USSR – 1953

  18. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S.. • Execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

  19. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S.. • Execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg • Soviet atomic bomb – September 1949 • believed Russia was 3-5 years away from such development • must have had assistance • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg • minor activists in Communist Party • Jewish heritage • convicted/executed in electric chair • June, 1953 • 1st US civilians executed for espionage

  20. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S.. • ICBM’s • intercontinental ballistic missile • bomb shelters • stocked with water, canned goods, batteries, etc… • military spending • massive sums for nuclear/conventional weapons • wars: Korea, Vietnam, Cuba • Duck and Cover • preparing for nuclear war (like a fire drill)

  21. 5. I can describe the ways in which the fear of communism affected the U.S.. • Space Race • Sputnik – 1957 • Soviet satellite • Yuri Gagarin • first human to journey into outer space - April 1961 • Alan Shepard • first American to journey into outer space - May 1961 • JFK’s “New Frontier” • “land a man on the moon and return him to earth before the end of the decade” • accomplished July 20, 1969 • emphasis on math and science education • exclusion of social science education

  22. 6. I can recall the events of the Korean Conflict. • Korean Conflict • was described by President Harry S. Truman as a • "police action" • as it was conducted under the United Nations • referred to as "The Forgotten War"or "The Unknown War“ • because of the lack of public attention it received • Korean Peninsula • divided at the 38th parallel - 1945 • USSR control the North • USA control the South • elections scheduled for 1948

  23. 6. I can recall the events of the Korean Conflict. • North Korea invades South Korea – 1950 • Kim Il-Sung • Communist leader of North Korea • US believes USSR encouraged the attack • United Nations • Resolution 83 • “police action” • several nations commit troops • largely US effort • 88% of the 341,000 international soldiers • Kim Il-Sung

  24. 6. I can recall the events of the Korean Conflict. • General Douglas MacArthur • “rear action” at Inchon • drives north to near Yalu River • border of China • assures Truman China won’t get involved • a fierce anti-Communist • would use occasion to reverse Chinese Communist Revolution • Truman fears nuclear war with Soviet Union • detonated atomic bomb in 1949 • Chinese attack U.N. forces!!

  25. 6. I can recall the events of the Korean Conflict. • war “seesaws” over 38th parallel • stalemate for most of 3 years • “armistice” – July, 1953 • a cease fire • no victor • country remains divided at 38th parallel • establish DMZ • “De-Militarized Zone”

  26. 6. I can recall the events of the Korean Conflict. • Truman/MacArthur Controversy

  27. 6. I can recall the events of the Korean Conflict. • Truman/MacArthur Controversy • Truman • limited war for limited objectives • feared escalation to nuclear war • MacArthur • fight “total war” • including nuclear weapons • opposed Truman policy publicly • Truman relieves MacArthur of command • returns home to hero’s welcome • issue: civilian vs. military authority

  28. 7. I can identify Fulgencio Batista and Fidel Castro. • Fulgencio Batista • elected President of Cuba from • 1940 to 1944 • dictator from 1952 to 1959, • overthrown by Fidel Castro • Fidel Castro • led revolution against U.S. backed military dictatorship of Batista • turned Cuba into a one-party socialist state • nationalized all major industries • socialist reforms undertaken in all areas of society

  29. “I believe that there is no country in the world including any and all the countries under colonial domination, where economic colonization, humiliation and exploitation were worse than in Cuba, in part owing to my country's policies during the Batista regime. I approved the proclamation which Fidel Castro made in the Sierra Maestra, when he justifiably called for justice and especially yearned to rid Cuba of corruption. I will even go further: to some extent it is as though Batista was the incarnation of a number of sins on the part of the United States. Now we shall have to pay for those sins. In the matter of the Batista regime, I am in agreement with the first Cuban revolutionaries. That is perfectly clear.” John F. Kennedy to Jean Daniel, October 24, 1963

  30. 8. I can describe the changes Castro implemented in Cuba. • Cuba became a one-party state under Communist Party governance • central economic planning • expanded healthcare and education • state control of the press • suppression of internal dissent • “nationalization” • government takeover of major industries

  31. 9. I can discuss the Bay of Pigs invasion. • Bay of Pigs – 1961 • CIA organized invasion of Cuba • in response to Cuban Revolution and … • “nationalization” of American-owned property • government take-over • “socialism” • by Cuban “émigrés” and … • CIA operatives • begun by Eisenhower • continued by Kennedy • JFK refused to order “air strike”

  32. 9. I can discuss the Bay of Pigs invasion. • Bay of Pigs – 1961 • results: • disaster for US forces/Cuban emigres • moved Castro closer to USSR • JFK seen as “vulnerable” • in eyes of Soviets • become more bold • build Berlin Wall • placement of “defensive” missiles in Cuba • Cuban Missile Crisis – 1962 • some suggest rogue members of CIA upset with JFK • implicated in his assassination - 1963

  33. 10. I can describe the Cuban Missile Crisis. • Cuban Missile Crisis – October 1962 • U-2 Reconnaissance planes discover ballistic missiles in Cuba • violation of Monroe Doctrine • JFK orders “quarantine” • a blockade of Cuba • intercept approaching ships carrying missiles • orders missiles removed • a stand-off with Soviet Union • fear nuclear war

  34. 10. I can describe the Cuban Missile Crisis. • Cuban Missile Crisis – October 1962 • results: • Soviets honor blockade • remove missiles • in return for promise not to invade Cuba • remove US missiles in Turkey • Soviets begin build-up of nuclear forces • avoid inferior position in future

  35. 11. I can describe the role of various U.S. Presidents in the Vietnam War. • Harry S. Truman – 1945-1953 • $10 million to France – May 1950 • aid in regaining “Indochina” • 50 military advisors – August 1950 • wants France to join N.A.T.O. • European alliance to thwart Soviet expansion • China “falls” to Communism in 1949 • Issue: • U.S. fights WW II to end colonialism • Communist expansion causes U.S. to aid French colonialism to resist Soviet/Chinese expansion

  36. 11. I can describe the role of various U.S. Presidents in the Vietnam War. • Dwight D. Eisenhower – 1953 – 1961 • continues aid to Vietnam • $60 million • Dien Bien Phu - 1954 • French fortress/airstrip • laid siege by Vietminh • Ike refuses air support • Korean Conflict ongoing • France’s “Waterloo” • final defeat • plan to leave

  37. 11. I can describe the role of various U.S. Presidents in the Vietnam War. • Dwight D. Eisenhower – 1953 – 1961 • Dien Bien Phu - 1954

  38. 11. I can describe the role of various U.S. Presidents in the Vietnam War. • Dwight D. Eisenhower – 1953 – 1961 • Geneva Accords - 1954 • divide Vietnam at 17th parallel • Ho Chi Minh in North • Ngo Dinh Diem in South • nationwide elections in 1956 • choose government for all of Vietnam • French plan to leave Vietnam • 1956 • elections canceled in South • fear Ho Chi Minh victory

  39. 11. I can describe the role of various U.S. Presidents in the Vietnam War. • John F. Kennedy – 1961-1963 • increase aid to South Vietnam • 16,000 military advisers • “counter-insurgency” • clandestine raids into North Vietnam • sabotage communication/transportation networks • Assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem • policies of repression, corruption • loses support of people • undertaken by S.V.N Generals • question of Kennedy’s involvement

  40. 11. I can describe the role of various U.S. Presidents in the Vietnam War. • Lyndon B. Johnson – 1963-1969 • continue policy of economic assistance of previous Presidents • Gulf of Tonkin Incident - 1964 • Resolution • “… for all necessary action to protect our Armed Forces“ assured that "the United States ... seeks no wider war" • Operation Rolling Thunder - 1964 • massive bombing campaigns of North Vietnam • designed to bring to bargaining table

  41. 11. I can describe the role of various U.S. Presidents in the Vietnam War. • Lyndon B. Johnson – 1963-1969 • combat troops arrive – 1965 • reach peak of 565,000 in 1968 • Tet Offensive – 1968 • Vietnamese New Year • North launches military strikes all over South Vietnam • U.S. Embassy in Saigon • United States’ “Waterloo” • been told were “winning” the war • energized anti-war movement • caused reversal of U.S. policy • Johnson “abdicates” • does not seek re-election!