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The Twenties
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  1. The Twenties

  2. Discuss with your group: • List ten things you know about the 20s. • Contrast the 20s with the decades before. What do you think accounts for some of these differences?

  3. Post-War America 1919 – returning veterans have difficulty finding work; US disillusioned in aftermath of the War Most wanted to return to “normalcy”, rejected both internationalism and progressivism Biggest problem: lack of jobs

  4. The Red Scare A reaction against radical political and economic movements; targeted political activists and union organizers Ex: the International Workers of the World (IWW)

  5. The Red Scare Causes: reaction to the Russian Revolution and communist movements in Europe disillusionment after WW I labor unrest; major strikes in 1919 and 1920

  6. The Red Scare Meant to suppress “anti-American” groups like the Socialists and other radical organizations Meetings broken up Leaders arrested IWW Rally in New York

  7. The Red Scare Acts of terrorism: Sept., 1920 – bombs set off on Wall Street, 38 people killed

  8. The Red Scare Led to rise of the nativist groups, particularly the Ku Klux Klan Highest membership in their history

  9. The Red Scare “Palmer Raids” – round up of radicals, led by Atty. Gen. A. Mitchell Palmer Created FBI to monitor activities of those suspected of being “un-American”; directed by J. Edgar Hoover

  10. The Red Scare Also targeted immigrants suspected of disloyalty or radical politics Case of Sacco and Vanzetti (1921 – 1926) Suspected radicals; arrested for murder, executed despite lack of evidence Worldwide movement over their innocence

  11. The Red Scare What ended the Red Scare: creation of groups opposing government restrictions (American Civil Liberties Union) return of economic prosperity scandals in the Klan and other groups Protest against Palmer Raids, NY, 1921 ACLU founder Roger Baldwin

  12. Prohibition!(what a great idea!) Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

  13. Think, write, pair, share • Trace the development of the prohibition movement: how was prohibition passed? • 2nd Great Awakening • Urban Problems • Women’s Christian Temperance Union • Anti-Saloon League • By 1916 2/3 majorities in both houses “dry” • Need for grain, etc. during war makes prohibition a patriotic duty

  14. Prohibition Passage of the Volstead Act led to illegal manufacture of alcohol (“bootlegging”) Government crackdown on booze Attendance at Mass up 25%!

  15. Prohibition Rise of the “speakeasy” Miss Rowen

  16. Prohibition Rise of organized crime; Al Capone in Chicago

  17. Think, pair, share • Why did prohibition fail? • Large numbers of people hostile to the law • Politicians don’t enforce it; loopholes, could be sold as medicine • Easy to get around- home brew, etc. • Doesn’t seem like a big deal to break the law, had been legal previously

  18. The Modern vs. the Traditional Two conflicting themes in the 20s: modern vs. traditional values; coincided during the decade Evangelist Billy Sunday

  19. Think, pair, share • The car was more than just a car. What drastic changes to American society might the car bring? • Growth of oil, rubber, steel industry • Road building • Employed 6m by 1930 • Greater independence for young people: generation gap

  20. Modern Consumer Items Bought mostly on credit; eventual problems Growth of auto industry

  21. The “New Morality” Emphasized fast living and materialism less inhibited than before More interested in fun (otherwise known as “sin”) The Charleston

  22. Modern Consumer Items Other popular items: (to keep the little woman happy!)

  23. Charlie Chaplin Rudolph Valentino Lou Gehrig Babe Ruth Celebrities in the 20s Mary Pickford Red Grange Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle

  24. The “Talkie” First movie with sound: The Jazz Singer with Al Jolson Not exactly politically correct

  25. Films • Silent Films • The Mark of Zorro • Charlie Chaplin • Harold Lloyd • Horror movies • Science fiction Turner the Love God

  26. The Modern vs. the Traditional The “Scopes Monkey Trial” – HS teacher John Scopes arrested in TN for teaching evolution Opposing attorneys Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan (again!)

  27. The “Scopes Monkey Trial” - 1926 Trial broadcast live on radio; highlight was Darrow questioning Bryan as expert witness Darrow Bryan Scopes found guilty, fined $100, forbidden to teach in TN again Bryan considers return to politics but dies one week after end of trial

  28. Celebrities in the 1920s Charles Lindbergh and the Spirit of St. Louis First man to cross the Atlantic solo; 33 hours, no pee pee breaks

  29. Politics Harding vs. Cox: US rejects activist govt.; elects Harding in a landslide Noteworthy: Dem VP Franklin D. Roosevelt

  30. Warren G. Harding Former Ohio Senator and newspaper publisher; represented a “return to normalcy” for many voters Inactive president; liked to gamble, drink, and chase skirts; very popular with American people The smokin’ hot Florence Harding

  31. The Harding “Administration” Harding mainly a figurehead; govt. attempts to roll back progressive reforms; a return to laissez-faire Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon drops income tax to near zero and restores the Tariff to near record levels (Fordney-McCumber) Dropped anti-trust activity Anti-labor

  32. Foreign Policy of the 20s Return to isolationism and beginning of arms reductions with Europe Washington Conference led to arms limitations Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) outlaws war as a foreign policy

  33. The Harding “Administration” Considered one of the most corrupt in history Atty. Gen. Harry Daugherty tried for selling pardons; acquitted Sec. of the Interior Albert Fall convicted for taking bribes from oil companies to drill on govt. land; called Teapot Dome Biggest scandal of the 20s

  34. I have no trouble with my enemies. But my friends, they're the ones who keep me walking the floor at nights! I don't know much about Americanism, but it's a damn good word with which to carry an election. God, what a job! Death of Harding (Aug. 23, 1923)

  35. Calvin Coolidge Most inert president of all-time Total opposite of Harding Said little, did little (like 6th period) maintained status quo 1924 – lowest turnout ever 1928 – “I do not choose to run”; declines to run for another term

  36. 1928 Election Herbert Hoover vs. Al Smith Problems with the Smith candidacy: Yankee accent (first campaign on the radio) a “wet” (anti- Prohibition) first Catholic candidate in history

  37. 1928 Election Hoover wins; even some Southern states vote Republican (first time since Reconstruction); biggest landslide yet

  38. Analyze the conditions that led to the Great Depression. To what extent were the Republican policies of the 20s to blame?