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The Twenties. Birth of the modern. Postwar Developments At Home. The years after the “War to End ALL Wars” are characterized by: isolationism business boom/labor problems small gov’t fear of immigrants fear of communism racial tensions Prohibition. “ CONSERVATIVE”. 1920’s.

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The Twenties

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    1. The Twenties Birth of the modern

    2. Postwar Developments At Home • The years after the “War to End ALL Wars” are characterized by: • isolationism • business boom/labor problems • small gov’t • fear of immigrants • fear of communism • racial tensions • Prohibition “CONSERVATIVE” 1920’s

    3. Rising middle class • More leisure time • Many consumer products • Increased autos & travels • Gangsters and bootleggers • Mass media & popular culture • “loose” society “vs. • “moral” society” “ROARING” 1920’s

    4. The RED SCARE • Strikes & race riots, blamed on foreigners / communists • Fear in particular of Communism - a system in which property is owned by society as a whole instead of by individuals. • 1917 -Communist victory in the Russia • 1919, now Soviet Union,exports revolution

    5. LABOR STRIKES • In 1919 - more than 3,600 strikes • A general strike in Seattle, Washington, nearly paralyzed the city, and U.S. Marines were sent in to restore order. The strike failed. • The greatest single labor action, also ended in failure, was the Great Steel Strikein January 1920. It involved 350,000 steelworkers in several Midwestern states. Strikers were called radicals and violent. Business leaders, political leaders, newspapers turned against the workers. Lead to the decline in the union movement. FAILURES Steel mill owners, political leaders, and newspapers accused the strikers of being linked with radicals and turned against the workers.

    6. 1919 and 1920 Labor Strikes –Why failures ? Fear of communism 1917 Russian Bolshevik Revolution – Communism starts by revolution ---workers revolt and takeover

    7. The Palmer Raids Anti-Communist • Bombings/ hysteria spring of 1919. • Several packages to leading politicians and businessmen, explode when opened. • Palmer sets up an anti-radical division of the Justice • One bomb exploded outside the home of the attorney general, A. Mitchell Palmer.

    8. Palmer Raids • November 1919 , the first attacks, known as the “Palmer Raids” were made on private homes of suspected Communist sympathizers and on the headquarters of labor and radical organizations. • January 1920, More than 6,000 radicals were arrested as a result of the Palmer Raids. • Civil liberties violated, • citizens and aliens • denied legal counsel, • held without charges.

    9. Sacco - Vanzetti Case ~ May 1920 Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti arrested for murder and armed robbery in Massachusetts.

    10. Circumstantial evidence only • S & V were anarchists. (anarchism - the idea that all forms of gov’t are bad and should be done away with.) • Also Italians, atheists, & draft-dodgers • The judge was openly prejudiced. • S & V convicted, sentenced to death, and despite worldwide protests, they were executed in 1927. • Posthumously exonerated by the Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis.

    11. Racial Unrest • 1917-1919 Race riots • occurred in Houston, • Philadelphia, Chicago • White mobs terrorized black communities • In Chicago, a white mob stoned a black swimmer to death who had strayed into the “white section” of the beach. 38 more people were killed in the violence that followed. • Since 1890, thousands of blacks died in lynchings in the South.

    12. Ku Klux Klan • Post war – “new” Klan – white, native born, Gentile • They directed their hatred against anyone who was“different”. • Targeted Catholics, Jews, Asians, and immigrants & African Americans. • Were a violent • terrorist group

    13. 1925 The Klan had as many as 4 million members. They elect five senators and four state governors -in northern not just southern states. • 1925 a Klan leader was convicted of murder(also sex scandal & embezzlement )and membership began to drop as the increasing violence weakened the Klan’s appeal

    14. Klan terms Imperial Wizard Grand Cyclops Knights of the Invisible Empire Klavern Klabee: treasurers Kleagle: recruiter Klecktoken: initiation fee Kligrapp: secretary Klonvocation: gathering Kloran: ritual book Kloreroe: delegate Kludd: chaplain

    15. NAACP • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • Begin anti-lynching campaign,asked Congress to make lynching a federal crime. Senate refused. • NAACP use the courts to attack segregation, disenfranchisement, and lynchings, won few victories.

    16. PROHIBITION The Volstead Act was enacted by Congress to ensure the proper enforcement of Prohibition. 18TH AMENDMENT Prohibits the manufacture, transport and sale of liquor after January 16, 1920.

    17. Gangsters, Bootleggers, and Speakeasies become a part of the Prohibition culture. • Gov’t hires only 1,500 agents to enforce Prohibition. • Ordinary people defied the law, many making bathtub gin at home. • Churches could still use wine for sacramental purposes and doctors could prescribe alcohol for medicinal reasons Prohibition was a constitutional amendment +prohibited the sale of alcohol. +led to the rise of organized crime

    18. There was a place in America during Prohibition, where people gathered to drink and dance and forget their woes. Would-be customers were often met at the door of an unmarked building by steely eyes peering through a small slot. Once inside, these ordinary folks carried on with reckless abandon and rubbed shoulders with notorious gangsters like Al Capone and John Dillinger. They called this place a speakeasy.

    19. Al Capone Public Enemy # 1 Organized crime creates criminal empires like Chicago’s Al Capone. Gangsters use violence in competition for the illegal alcohol trade. Al Capone was a Chicago gangster who made a fortune during prohibition smuggling and distilling alcohol. The money generated by this illicit business eventually became a corrupting influence on the government.

    20. "The Untouchables" Special Law Enforcement Agents were needed to investigate and bring charges against the power of organized crime.

    21. Prohibition is difficult to enforce. • Crime has increased. • Prohibition is clearly not working. 21st Amendment Repeals - or cancels the 18th Amendment. Ends Prohibition.

    22. The Election of 1920 • Voters want to put the war and problems here at home behind them • Republican candidate Warren G. Harding promises “a return to normalcy.” • Harding is pro business as in lower taxes for the wealthy and high tariffs on imports. • VP is Calvin Coolidge, known for his tough treatment of strikers in Boston.

    23. Teapot Dome Scandal

    24. Nan Britton & daughter… and daddy?

    25. Leopold Loeb Murder

    26. Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle

    27. Aimee Semple Macpherson – Radio evangelist,,, and kidnap victim?

    28. Black sox scandal

    29. Scopes Trial The world's attention was riveted on Dayton, Tennessee, during July, 1925. At issue was the constitutionality of the "Butler Law," which prohibited the teaching of evolution in the classroom. Oklahoma, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina and Kentucky already had such laws. The ACLU hoped to use the Scopes case to test (and defeat)Fundamentalist meddling in politics. Judge John Raulston began the trial by reading the first 27 verses of Genesis. William Jennings Bryan Clarence Darrow

    30. Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryant The Scopes trial was a trial was a battle between science and religion. It involved a teacher (Scopes) who taught evolution in his high school science class. This was against the law in Tennessee. Clarence Darrow defended Scopes while William Jennings Bryant was the lawyer for the state. In a stroke of brilliance, Darrow called Bryan to the stand. He fired questions at the aging Bryan in rapid-fire succession. Bryan appeared foolish and confused. The jury, nevertheless,found Scopes guilty and fined him $100. Because the fine was overturned on a technicality, Darrow could not appeal the decision to the Supreme Court. The trial was a media event. Vendors sold hot dogs and lemonade on the courthouse lawn, and spectators crowded the premises hoping for a glimpse of the two most famous attorneys of the times. Although Scopes lost his trial, his case symbolized the tensions in America in the 1920’s between older beliefs and social change.

    31. Roaring 20’s

    32. Fashion

    33. The MODERN Woman • Flashy new dress, bobbed hair and cosmetics • liberated lifestyle • often seen smoking, drinking, dancing, wearing makeup, attending lively parties • most middle class women continued to stay at home as housewives and mothers • some began to find careers "flappers"

    34. What happened? • New “labor” saving devices

    35. The New Middle Class • Americans are influenced by new advertising and marketing techniques • Americans buy appliances, cosmetics, commercially processed foods, mass produced autos, new fashions. • Consumption =dominant cultural ideal • Installment Buying Plan. “Buy Now - Pay Later.”

    36. Advertisements

    37. Radio- 1st commercial station broadcasts in 1920 • Radio stations feature news, sports events, variety entertainment and live musical broadcasts. • By 1929, 40 % of American households owned radios. • New leisure time initiates the building of playgrounds, parks, swimming pools, golf courses, tennis courts, and ball fields.

    38. Model T Henry Ford established the assembly line to manufacture inexpensive automobiles for the general public. The easy to operate and affordable Model T allowed the middle class to own cars for the first time. Three impacts of the automobile. 1. Mobility beyond their backyards 2.New industries included road building, gas stations and auto mechanic garages. 3.Rural areas less isolated

    39. Motion Picture Industry influences popular culture - trends in clothing , hair styles, values and attitudes. • Movies with sound first appear in 1927 - The Jazz Singer

    40. National sports become popular • Baseball becomes the national pastime. • College football and boxing become very popular • Sports hero - Babe Ruth/ Jack Dempsey

    41. The Jazz Age • The musical innovation of the decade! • Started in New Orleans with African rhythms and songs, followed the Mississippi to northern cities. • Both black and white music lovers frequented nightclubs to hear Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Billie Holiday and others.

    42. Duke Ellington