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OIL: An Ontology Infrastructure for the Semantic Web. D. Fensel, F. van Harmelen, I. Horrocks, D. L. McGuinness, P. F. Patel-Schneider Presenter: Cristina Nicolae. Ontologies. “An ontology is a formal , explicit specification of a shared conceptualization .”

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oil an ontology infrastructure for the semantic web

OIL: An Ontology Infrastructure for the Semantic Web

D. Fensel, F. van Harmelen, I. Horrocks,

D. L. McGuinness, P. F. Patel-Schneider

Presenter: Cristina Nicolae

  • “An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a sharedconceptualization.”
    • conceptualization: abstract model of some phenomenon in the world that identifies that phenomenon’s relevant concepts
    • explicit: the type of concepts used and the constraints on their use are explicitly defined
    • formal: the ontology should be machine understandable
    • shared: an ontology captures consensual knowledge (accepted by a group)
applications of ontology technology 1 3
Applications of ontology technology (1/3)
  • Knowledge management
    • acquiring, maintaining and accessing an organization’s knowledge
    • weaknesses:
      • searching information (irrelevant word in other context)
      • extracting information (lack commonsense knowledge)
      • maintaining (large sources)
      • automatic document generation (require a machine-accessible representation of the semantics of info sources)
    • future solution:
      • semantic annotations
applications of ontology technology 2 3
Applications of ontology technology (2/3)
  • Web commerce
    • online stores, shopping agents, online marketplaces, auction houses
    • get information from several stores through wrappers – which use keyword search to find product info
    • limitations:
      • effort (writing wrapper for each online store is time-consuming + changes in store)
      • quality (info extracted is limited, error-prone and incomplete)
    • future solution:
      • software agents to understand product information
applications of ontology technology 3 3
Applications of ontology technology (3/3)
  • Electronic business
    • e-commerce in business-to-business field
    • protocol (standard): the UN Edifact
    • shortcomings:
      • procedural and cumbersome standard
      • programming of business transactions expensive and error-prone
      • large maintenance efforts
      • an isolated standard
    • future solution:
      • using the Internet’s infrastructure for business exchange
  • HTML: initial, simplistic
  • XML: provides serialized syntax for trees
  • RDF: defines a syntactical convention and a simple data model – triples: object/property/value
  • RDF Schema: introduces basic ontological primitives into the Web – classes, subclasses, subproperties, restrictions..
  • OIL: based on RDFS, enriched into a full-fledged Web-based ontology language
criteria that oil matches
Criteria that OIL matches
  • We need an advanced ontology language to express and represent ontologies. Must be:
    • highly intuitive to the human:
      • OIL frame-based
        • central modeling primitives are classes (frames) with attributes
    • well-defined formal semantics (completeness, correctness and efficiency)
      • OIL description logics
        • knowledge is described in terms of concepts and role restrictions
    • proper link to existing Web languages (XML, RDF)
      • OIL  syntax in XML, based on RDF
        • a standardized syntax for writing ontologies and a standard set of modeling primitives
oil s layered architecture
OIL’s layered architecture
  • Each layer adds functionality and complexity to the previous one
  • Core OIL: coincides with RDFS except reification features
  • Standard OIL: specifying the semantics and making complete inferences viable
  • Instance OIL: full-fledged database capability
  • Heavy OIL: will include additional representational and reasoning capabilities
oil tools
OIL tools
  • Ontology editors
    • build new ontologies
      • OntoEdit (U. Karlsruhe), OILed (U. Manchester), Protégé (Stanford)
  • Ontology-based annotation tools
    • we can derive an XML DTD and an XML Schema definition from an ontology in OIL
    • we can derive an RDF and RDFS definition for instances from OIL
  • Reasoning with ontologies
    • reason about an ontology’s instances and schema definition
      • FaCT
applications of oil
Applications of OIL
  • Swiss Life: Organizational memory
    • an intranet-based front end to an organizational memory
  • British Telecom: Call centers
    • call center agents use a variety of electronic sources for information when interacting with customers  OIL provides front end tool
  • EnerSearch: Virtual enterprise
    • is a virtual organization researching new IT-based business strategies and customer services in deregulated energy markets  OIL toolkit enhances knowledge transfer.
conclusions on oil
Conclusions on OIL
  • is properly grounded in Web languages (XML Schemas & RDFS)
  • inner layers enable efficient reasoning support based on FaCT
  • has a well-defined formal semantics