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DATA VISUALIZATION. UNIVARIATE (no review- self study) STEM & LEAF BOXPLOT BIVARIATE SCATTERPLOT (review correlation) Overlays; jittering Regression line overlay (see ASA website: http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_144_g_4_t_5.html?open=activities. DATA VISUALIZATION.

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data visualization

DATA VISUALIZATION

UNIVARIATE (no review- self study)

STEM & LEAF

BOXPLOT

BIVARIATE

SCATTERPLOT (review correlation)

Overlays; jittering

Regression line overlay (see ASA

website:

http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/frames_asid_144_g_4_t_5.html?open=activities

data visualization2

DATA VISUALIZATION

TOPICS

GRAPHICAL DISPLAYS

UNIVARIATE

BIVARIATE

ASSUMPTIONS OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION

LINEARITY

HOMOSCEDASTICITY

ERROR INDEPENDENCE

NORMALITY

FIXING VIOLATIONS

graphical displays
GRAPHICAL DISPLAYS
  • Frequency Histogram:
    • SPSS ANALYZE: Descriptive Statistics: Explore: Plot: Stem and Leaf
    • SPSS GRAPH: Boxplot (normal curve overlay available
      • or INTERACTIVE: Boxplot or Analyze: Frequencies
    • SPSS GRAPH: Histogram or Interactive: Histogram
      • # “bins” = 1 + log2(N)
      • Example: N= 500; #bins = 1+ 9 = 10
      • Log2(512) = 9 (eg., 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2=512)
slide4

ANXIETY Stem-and-Leaf Plot

Frequency Stem & Leaf

.00 3 .

22.00 3 . 4444444444455555555555

35.00 3 . 66666666777777777777777777777777777

7.00 3 . 9999999

39.00 4 . 000000000000000000000000011111111111111

22.00 4 . 2222222222222222222222

26.00 4 . 44455555555555555555555555

22.00 4 . 6666666667777777777777

26.00 4 . 88888888888999999999999999

12.00 5 . 111111111111

26.00 5 . 22222222222222222223333333

14.00 5 . 44444444444444

24.00 5 . 666666777777777777777777

31.00 5 . 8888888888888999999999999999999

28.00 6 . 1111111111111111111111111111

6.00 6 . 333333

15.00 6 . 444444444444444

24.00 6 . 666666666666666666666666

14.00 6 . 88888899999999

Stem width: 10

Each leaf: 1 case(s)

graphical displays8
GRAPHICAL DISPLAYS
  • Kernel Smoothing
    • SPSS Graph: INTERACTIVE: Line: Dots and Lines: Spline or Lagrange 3rd and 5th order fits
    • does not give you the smoother options (available for bivariate scatterplots- see later slides)
bivariate displays
Bivariate Displays
  • Scatterplots
    • Interval data
    • Category by interval- jittering
    • Regression fits- lowess lines
  • Scatterplot Matrices
interval scatterplot spss graphics interactive scatterplot fit method smoother
Interval Scatterplot: SPSS Graphics: Interactive: Scatterplot: Fit: Method:Smoother

No Smoother with Normal Smoother

interval scatterplot spss graphics interactive scatterplot fit method smoother13
Interval Scatterplot: SPSS Graphics: Interactive: Scatterplot: Fit: Method:Smoother

with Uniform Smoother

jittering
Jittering
  • Basic idea- when looking at displays for two or more groups, it is hard to tell where data lie due to overlaying of points in most plot programs, so
  • Add a small random score to each “group” score
    • For example, for males (score 1) and females (score 2), add a random number with std dev. of say .1 to each male and female score
jittering16
Jittering
  • The result is a spreading out of all scores around the Male or Female column in a scatterplot:

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Y

Male=1 Female=2

data visualization17

DATA VISUALIZATION

BIVARIATE

Loess lines: in SPSS an option under GRAPH/ Interactive / Scatterplot labeled “FIT” with METHOD = SMOOTHER

The Bandwidth multiplier has a 1.0 default; a smaller value will create more bumps or curves in the overall curve