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UN Reform. Edward Luck: How not to Reform the United Nations . Topics for today. Events of the day/week Compare the EU and the UN UN Reform efforts. States – and what else? . International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) United Nations, European Union, UNESCO, NATO, FAO, WHO, WMO….

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UN Reform

Edward Luck: How not to Reform the United Nations


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Topics for today

  • Events of the day/week

  • Compare the EU and the UN

  • UN Reform efforts

Hans Peter Schmitz


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States – and what else?

  • International Governmental Organizations (IGOs)

    • United Nations, European Union, UNESCO, NATO, FAO, WHO, WMO….

  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

    • Economic power: Multinational Corporations (MNCs)

    • Moral power: Transnational Advocacy Networks

    • Illicit power: Drug Cartels and Terrorists

Hans Peter Schmitz


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Comparing the UN and the EU

  • The United Nations

    • Headquarters: New York (Geneva, Vienna), Budget: $1.8 billion (2005; 4.5b for peacekeeping); ten states pay for 75% of the budget

    • Multi-purpose and global organization devoted to international peace and security/promotion of universal aims

    • Main bodies: Security Council and General Assembly

  • The European Union

    • Headquarters: Brussels (Strasbourg, Luxembourg), Budget: $121 billion (2005)

    • Mainly economic organization with regional membership

    • Main bodies: European Commission, Parliament, Council, Court of Justice, European Central Bank.

Hans Peter Schmitz


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United States*: 440 (24%)

Japan: 346 (19%)

Germany: 154 (8%)

UK*: 109 (6%)

France*: 107 (6%)

Italy: 87 (5%)

Canada: 50 (3%)

Spain: 45 (2%)

China*: 37 (2%)

Mexico: 34 (2%)

South Korea: 32 (1.9%)

Netherlands: 30 (1.7%)

Russia*: 29(1.3%)

Australia: 28 (1.2%)

Brazil: 27 (1.2%)

Switzerland: 21 (1%)

UN Budget for 2005 (in Million-$): top contributors

Hans Peter Schmitz


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General Assembly and Security Council

  • Security Council: 15 members; ten non-permanent, five permanent with veto power (China, US, Russia, France, and Great Britain).

  • General Assembly: One state-one vote. Africa and Asia combine now for 56 per cent of the GA votes, rather than 24 per cent in 1945.

  • See chart.

Hans Peter Schmitz


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Comparing Institutions I

  • European Commission: independent from member states, exclusive authority to initiate legislation, “guardian of the treaties,” about 25,000 civil servants for 25 member states

  • UN Secretariat: responsible for day-today operations; services the principal organs of the UN; about 8,900 civil servants for 192 member states

Hans Peter Schmitz


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Comparing Institutions II

  • European Parliament: directly elected representatives from all member states; approves the budget (with the Council)

  • UN General Assembly: one state – one vote; makes primarily non-binding decisions (resolutions; except: budget)

Hans Peter Schmitz


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Comparing Institutions III

  • European Court of Justice: power to interpret and enforce EU treaties; hears cases from individuals and corporations; effective in enforcing community law

  • International Court of Justice: relies on prior acceptance by state parties; hears cases from states only; ineffective in enforcing international law

Hans Peter Schmitz


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Regional IGOs

Americas:

Organization of American States (OAS)

MERCOSUR

Africa:

African Union (AU, since 2002); previously: Organization of African Unity (OAU)

Asia:

Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Middle East:

League of Arab States

Hans Peter Schmitz


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Why is European integration a success?

  • Why is European integration progressing while the UN struggles to fulfill its mandate?

    • Shock of World War II and the Holocaust.

    • United States support during in Cold War.

    • Economic integration as focal point. Economic growth of the 1950s/60s legitimized integration.

    • Cultural differences are less pronounced.

      Europe: A model for the rest of the world?

      Answer: Not likely. The United States and Germany played a unique role in the unification of Europe.

Hans Peter Schmitz


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Summary: Understanding IGO success and limits

Lessons Learned

  • Unique conditions in Europe after World War II.

  • Start with a small number of countries and focus only on economic integration.

  • Avoid a mismatch of mandate and capabilities.

  • Expand mandate and membership slowly.

  • Pre-screen new members and create separate steps of integration; members must be democracies.

  • Deepen integration on the basis of consensus, even if it takes longer.

Hans Peter Schmitz


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United Nations Reform

  • 2003 reform effort follows the Iraq invasion

    • High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change.

      • Civil wars and domestic human rights abuses.

      • “Responsibility to protect” doctrine.

    • Institutional, or political reform (p. 409)?

  • Luck: Expanding the UN SC negates the realities of the world: U.S. is the remaining superpower.

Hans Peter Schmitz


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Political reform first?

Luck’s key argument: Political reform has to proceed institutional reform.

Delink different reform agendas: UN SC, management, R2P, human rights, etc.

Be modest in your expectations for reforms.

Hans Peter Schmitz


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Luck and IR theories

How would you characterize Luck’s view?

Which IR perspectives shape his arguments?

Hans Peter Schmitz