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Physical Growth, Maturation and Aging. Growth Measures: Anthropometry Height Weight Segment length Body breadth Circumferences. Height. Up to 3 yrs old, measure laying down 3+ use stadiometer Cant jump to conclusions: late maturer vs. genetically shorter. Weight.

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physical growth maturation and aging
Physical Growth, Maturation and Aging
  • Growth Measures: Anthropometry
  • Height
  • Weight
  • Segment length
  • Body breadth
  • Circumferences
height
Height
  • Up to 3 yrs old, measure laying down
  • 3+ use stadiometer
  • Cant jump to conclusions: late maturer vs. genetically shorter
weight
Weight
  • Scales: preferably platform with movable weights
  • Minimal clothing center of scale
  • No information on body composition
body composition
Body Composition
  • Fat weight
  • Lean body weight
    • Bone
    • Muscle
    • Organs
    • Tissue other than fat
body fat
Body Fat
  • Underwater weighing
    • Muscle more dense than fat
    • Completely submerged and expel air
    • Especially difficult with young children
  • Potassium 40
    • Measure amount in body
    • Proportional to lean body mass
    • Lay in body counter, scans and records levels
    • Expensive and not widely available
  • Skinfold Thickness
    • Place caliper over fold of skin at specific sites
    • Enter measures into equations
    • Compare to norms
circumference
Circumference
  • Reflect cross sectional size (use non stretchable tape measure)
  • Standard sites: head, neck waist, hip, thigh, calf, and arm
  • Chest often inaccurate (inspiration and breast development)
  • Head: important in young children (just above bony ridge of eyes)
    • Deviations may imply neurological abnormalities
    • Used only as a screening measure, not diagnosis
breadth
Breadth
  • Assessing growth, build or physique
  • Blade anthropometer or breadth caliper
  • Bone locations e.g.. Shoulders and hips
  • Can observe proportional changes in physique
  • Gender differences; men have much larger shoulder to hip ratio
segment length
Segment Length
  • Sitting height: determine contributions of certain segments to total height
  • Measures from body landmarks
  • Use anthropometer
  • Leg length: subtract sitting height from standing height
maturation measures
Maturation Measures
  • Progress toward maturity by qualitative rather than quantitative advancement
  • Chronological age: years and days
  • Maturational levels are much different
  • Difficult to infer maturity from size (may be small yet mature for age)
  • Measures of size overlook genetic inheritance or excess fat weight
  • If genetically tall, may appear to mature early but actually normal maturity
skeletal age
Skeletal Age
  • Radiographs (x-rays) usually wrist, sometimes long bones or teeth
  • Compare to standard measures
  • Increased age: denser and more opaque on x-ray
  • Greater calcification indicative of advancement
  • Expensive and unnecessary x-ray exposure
dental eruption
Dental Eruption
  • Appearance of teeth (only applicable at certain ages)
  • 6 months to 3yrs, and 6yrs to 13 years
secondary sex characteristics
Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • Pubic hair, genital development (boys)
  • Pubic hair, breast development (girls)
  • Rate 1-5 based on standard photos
  • Also axillary and facial hair
  • Method limited but good for additional information
plotting growth
Plotting Growth
  • Distance Curve
    • Absolute amount of growth
    • Rate or speed of improvement
    • Transition points
  • Velocity Curve
    • Graph rate of change (amount of increase per year)
  • Acceleration Graph
    • Graph rate of change of velocity
the study of growth
The Study of Growth
  • Careful repeated measurements of body dimensions
  • Skill development often related to physical size and maturity
  • Realistically assess capabilities and set realistic expectations