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Work Measurement

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  1. Work Measurement Establishing the time taken by a worker to carry out a specified job a a defined level of performance

  2. Purpose of Work Measurement • To reduce the amount of ineffective time • Provides management with a means of identifying the causes of ineffective time

  3. Uses of Work Measurment • To compare the efficiency of alternative work methods • To balance the work of members of teams • To determine the number of machines an operative can run

  4. Work Standards A ‘work standard’ is the time required for a trained worker to perform a task with normal effort and skills

  5. Uses of Work Standards • Capacity planning • Scheduling • Costing • Performance appraisal • Motivating workers with incentives

  6. Areas of Controversy • Conflict between management and workers • Workers think standards too high • Management think standards too low • Conflicts expensive • Need achievable standards for costing, scheduling etc. • Time studies dehumanising • Industrial Engineering departments expensive • Using work standards for piecework incentives reduces incentive to improve work methods • Trade off with quality

  7. Work Measurement Techniques • Time study • Activity sampling • Predetermined motion time systems • Synthesis from standard data • Estimating • Analytical estimating • Comparative estimating

  8. Time Study • Select work elements • Timing the elements • Determine sample time • Setting the work standard

  9. Selecting Work Elements • Obvious starting and stopping points • Long enough to accurately time • Should have been running smoothly for a period of time in a standard work environment • Separate incidental operations from the repetetive work

  10. Timing Work Elements • Stopwatch • Investigate single sample times that differ greatly from other timings for the same element. Don’t include ‘irregular occurencies’, use allowances.

  11. n = [( )( )] z p t 2 Determining Sample Size • We are trying to estimate the average of the true time distribution to a certain precision with a particular confidence • Do a set of initial samples • Use n = required sample size p = precision of estimate as a proportion of true value t = mean time from sample (the select time)  = standard deviation of sample times z = number of standard deviations for desired confidence

  12. Time Study Method Packaging Coffee Cups

  13. Packaging Coffee Cups Step 1: Selecting Work Elements

  14. Step 1: Selecting Work Elements Work Element 1. Get carton 2. Put liner in carton 3. Place cups in carton 4. Seal carton and set aside Packaging Coffee Cups

  15. Step 2: Timing the Elements Standard Select Deviation,  Time, t Work Element (minutes) (minutes) 1. Get cartons 2. Put liner in carton 3. Place cups in carton 4. Seal carton and set aside Packaging Coffee Cups

  16. Step 2: Timing the Elements (10 observations) Standard Select Deviation,  Time, t Work Element (minutes) (minutes) 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 Packaging Coffee Cups

  17. Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = [( )( )] z p t 2 Packaging Coffee Cups Step 3: Determining the Sample Size

  18. Desired Confidence (%) z 90 1.65 95 1.96 96 2.05 97 2.17 98 2.33 99 2.58 Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get cartons 0.0305 0.25 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = [( )( )] z p t 2 Packaging Coffee Cups Step 3: Determining the Sample Size

  19. Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get two carton 0.0305 0.25 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 Desired Confidence (%) z 90 1.65 95 1.96 96 2.05 97 2.17 98 2.33 99 2.58 Packaging Coffee Cups Step 3: Determining the Sample Size n = [( )( )] 1.96 0.04 t 2

  20. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = [( )( )] 1.96 0.04 t 2 Packaging Coffee Cups

  21. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = [( )( )] 1.96 0.04 t 2 Packaging Coffee Cups

  22. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = [( )( )] 1.96 0.0305 0.04 0.25 2 Packaging Coffee Cups

  23. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = 36 Packaging Coffee Cups

  24. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 36 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = 36 Packaging Coffee Cups

  25. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 36 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = 36 Packaging Coffee Cups

  26. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 36 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = [( )( )] 1.96 0.04 t 2 Packaging Coffee Cups

  27. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 36 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 58 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = [( )( )] 1.96 0.04 t 2 Packaging Coffee Cups

  28. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get cartons 0.0305 0.25 36 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 58 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 3 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 n = [( )( )] 1.96 0.04 t 2 Packaging Coffee Cups

  29. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 36 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 58 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 3 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 2 n = [( )( )] 1.96 0.04 t 2 Packaging Coffee Cups

  30. Step 3: Determining the Sample Size Standard Select Required Deviation,  Time, t Sample Work Element (minutes) (minutes) Size 1. Get carton 0.0305 0.25 36 2. Put liner in carton 0.0171 0.11 58 3. Place cups in carton 0.0226 0.71 3 4. Seal carton and set aside 0.0241 1.10 2 Packaging Coffee Cups

  31. Setting the Work Standard • Need to judge the pace of the worker to produce a rating factor (RF). • RF < 1 means worker going slower than standard • RF > 1 means worker going faster than standard • Allowances • Contingency Allowance. For legitimate and expected work or delays which are uneconomic to measure • Relaxation Allowance. To allow for physiological or psychological effects of conditions eg. 5-7% Personal 0-10% Energy Output 0-5% Noisy 0-100% Conditions

  32. Setting the Work Standard • Basic time (BT) in Basic Minutes (BM) is Observed Time * Rating Factor • Basic Time for Cycle (BTC) is  BT • Standard time is BTC + Allowances

  33. Step 4: Setting the Standard Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 2. Put liner in carton 3. Place cups in carton 4. Seal carton and set aside Packaging Coffee Cups

  34. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.26 1.05 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 BT = t * RF Packaging Coffee Cups

  35. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.26 1.05 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 BT = t * RF Packaging Coffee Cups

  36. Packaging Coffee Cups Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.26 1.05 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 BT = 0.26 * 1.05

  37. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 BT = 0.26 * 1.05 Packaging Coffee Cups

  38. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.26 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 BT = 0.26 * 1.05 = 0.28 minute Packaging Coffee Cups

  39. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 BT = t * RF Packaging Coffee Cups

  40. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 BT = t * RF Packaging Coffee Cups

  41. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 0.83 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 BT = t * RF Packaging Coffee Cups

  42. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 0.83 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 0.97 BT = t * RF Packaging Coffee Cups

  43. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 0.83 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 0.97 Total 2.18 BT = t * RF BTC = BT Packaging Coffee Cups

  44. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 0.83 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 0.97 Total 2.18 BT = t * RF BTC = BT Packaging Coffee Cups

  45. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 0.83 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 0.97 Total 2.18 ST = BTC (1 + A) Packaging Coffee Cups

  46. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 0.83 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 0.97 Allowance (A) = 15% Total 2.18 ST = BTC (1 + A) Packaging Coffee Cups

  47. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 0.83 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 0.97 Allowance (A) = 15% Total 2.18 ST = 2.18 (1 + 0.15) Packaging Coffee Cups

  48. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 0.83 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 0.97 Allowance (A) = 15% Total 2.18 ST = 2.18 (1 + 0.15) = 2.51 minutes/carton Packaging Coffee Cups

  49. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF BT 1. Get carton 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 0.83 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 0.97 Allowance (A) = 15% Total 2.18 Standard Time 2.51 ST = 2.18 (1 + 0.15) = 2.51 minutes/carton Packaging Coffee Cups

  50. Step 4: Setting the Standard (after 48 additional observations) Work Element t RF NT 1. Get two cartons 0.53 1.05 0.28 2. Put liner in carton 0.10 0.95 0.10 3. Place cups in carton 0.75 1.10 0.83 4. Seal carton and set aside 1.08 0.90 0.97 Allowance (A) = 15% Total 2.18 Standard Time 2.51 Packaging Coffee Cups