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Dynamic Similarity. http://www.typefreediabetes.com/Articles.asp?ID=150. http://www.eosnap.com/?tag=strait-of-gibraltar. inertial vs viscous. Reynolds Number. Flow is laminar when Re < 1000. Flow is in transition to turbulence when 100 < Re < 10 5 to 10 6.

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slide1

Dynamic Similarity

http://www.typefreediabetes.com/Articles.asp?ID=150

http://www.eosnap.com/?tag=strait-of-gibraltar

slide2

inertial vs viscous

Reynolds Number

slide3

Flow is laminar when Re < 1000

Flow is in transition to turbulence when 100 < Re < 105 to 106

Flow is turbulent when Re > 106, unless the fluid is stratified

Low Re

High Re

slide4

Consider an oceanic flow where U = 0.1 m/s; L = 10 km; kinematic viscosity = 10-6 m2/s

Is friction negligible in the ocean?

slide5

Froude Number

inertial vs pressure

slide6

http://www.yourlocalweb.co.uk/greater-manchester/city-of-manchester/higher-blackley/pictures/http://www.yourlocalweb.co.uk/greater-manchester/city-of-manchester/higher-blackley/pictures/

slide7

Euler Number

pressure vs inertial

slide8

Great Fountain Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA

http://www.freefoto.com/browse/1222-02-0?ffid=1222-02-0

slide10

Strouhal Number

local vs inertial

f = frequency of motion; A = amplitude of motion – for flying or swimming organisms (fin or wing)

slide11

Taylor at al. (2003, Nature425, 707-711(16 )

doi:10.1038/nature02000)

“Left panels, root-flapping motion; right panels, heaving motion. Amplitude, twice wing chord; static angle of attack, 15°; flow speed, 1.5 ms-1; smoke wire visualizations made at end of downstroke.

a, For St < 0.10, flow separates at the sharp leading-edge, but no discrete vortex forms.

b, For 0.10 < St < 0.25, a leading-edge vortex forms but is shed before the downstroke ends.

c, For 0.25 < St < 0.45, the leading-edge vortex is shed as the downstroke ends.

d, For St > 0.45, trailing edge separation produces a characteristic mushroom-shaped wake.

At higher St, the wing collides with shed vorticity on the upstroke, giving an energetically inefficient mode.”

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6959/fig_tab/nature02000_F1.html#figure-title

slide12

Dynamic Similarity

http://www.typefreediabetes.com/Articles.asp?ID=150

http://www.eosnap.com/?tag=strait-of-gibraltar