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Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing. Definition of Intelligence . Intelligence: the capacity to learn. Principle Types of Psychological Tests. Intelligence tests: measure general mental ability Aptitude tests: assess talent for specific types of mental ability

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Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing


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    1. Chapter 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing

    2. Definition of Intelligence • Intelligence: the capacity to learn

    3. Principle Types of Psychological Tests • Intelligence tests: measure general mental ability • Aptitude tests: assess talent for specific types of mental ability • Achievement tests: mastery and knowledge of various subjects • Personality scales • Measure motives, interests, values, and attitudes

    4. Key Concepts in Psychological Testing • Standardization: the uniform proceudures used to administer and score a test • Test norms: provide info. About where a score on a test ranks in relation to other scores on that test • Standardization group

    5. Key Concepts in Psychological Testing • Percentile: gives the percentage of people who scored at, or below your score • Reliability: consistency of a test Correlation coefficient Test-retest reliability • Validity: the test measures what it was designed to measure • Content validity • Criterion-related validity • Construct validity

    6. The Evolution of Intelligence Testing • Sir Francis Galton (1869) • Hereditary Genius • Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (1905) were asked by the French government to design an intelligence test • Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale • Mental age: indicates a test score typical of children at a certain chronological age

    7. The Evolution of Intelligence Testing • Lewis Terman (1916) • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale • Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100 • David Wechsler (1955) • Developed Verbal and Performance IQ scores and normal distribution • Most widely used intelligence scales

    8. Figure9.7 The normal distribution

    9. Reliability and Validity of IQ tests • Exceptionally reliable – correlations into the .90s • Qualified validity – valid indicators of academic/verbal intelligence, not intelligence in a truly general sense • Correlations: • .40s–.50s with school success • .60s–.80s with number of years in school • Predictive of occupational attainment, debate about predictiveness of performance

    10. Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation • Diagnosis based on IQ and adaptive testing • IQ below 70 • Adaptive skill deficits • Origination before age 18 • 4 levels: mild, moderate, severe, profound • Mild most common by far • Causes: • Environmental vs. biological

    11. Figure9.10 The prevalence and severity of mental retardation

    12. Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness • Identification issues – ideals vs. practice • IQ 2 SD above mean standard • Creativity, leadership, special talent? • Stereotypes – weak, socially inept, emotionally troubled • Lewis Terman (1925) – largely contradicted stereotypes • Ellen Winner (1997) – moderately vs. profoundly gifted

    13. Intelligence: Heredity or Environment? • Heredity • Family and twin studies • Heritability estimates • Environment • Adoption studies • Cumulative deprivation hypothesis • The Flynn effect • Interaction • Reaction Range: Children reared in high quality environments score near the top of their potential IQ range (20-25 points difference)

    14. Figure9.13 Studies of IQ similarity

    15. Figure9.14 The concept of heritability

    16. Figure9.16 Reaction range

    17. Cultural Differences in IQ • Heritability as an Explanation • Aurthur Jensen (1969) • Herrnstein and Murray (1994) – The Bell Curve • Environment as an Explanation • Kamin’s cornfield analogy – socioeconomic disadvantage • Steele (1997) - stereotype vulnerability

    18. Figure9.17 Genetics and between-group differences on a trait

    19. New Directions in the Study of Intelligence • Biological Indexes and Correlates of Intelligence • Reaction time and inspection time • Brain size • Cognitive Conceptualizations of Intelligence • Sternberg’s triarchic theory and successful intelligence • Expanding the Concept of Intelligence • Gardner’s multiple intelligences • Goleman’s emotional intelligence

    20. Figure9.20 Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence

    21. Figure9.24 Estimated prevalence of psychological disorders among people who achieved creative eminence