Two views of public attitudes and sophistication
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Two Views of Public Attitudes and Sophistication. I. Elite Driven. Two (or Multi) – Tiered Electorate. Sophistication Information Flow Political Influentials v . Mass Elite to Mass. McClosky. Influentials are More Ideological than Public

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Two or multi tiered electorate
Two (or Multi) – Tiered Electorate

  • Sophistication

  • Information Flow

    • Political Influentialsv. Mass

    • Elite to Mass


Mcclosky
McClosky

  • Influentials are More Ideological than Public

  • Public expresses greater degrees of consensus and support for democratic ideology

  • Support for democratic values is stronger among influentials, but not a consensus

  • American democracy flourishes even though the public does not fully understand or embrace “democratic values”


Converse
Converse

  • Levels of Conceptualization

    All Voters

    Ideologues 2.5 3.5

    Near-Ideologues 9 12

    Group Interest 42 45

    Nature of the Times 24 22

    No Issue Content 22.5 17.5


Understanding recognition of concepts cons and lib
Understanding (Recognition of concepts Cons and Lib)

I II III IV V

Ideologues 51% 43 2 2 2

Near-Ideologues 29 46 10 5 10

Group Interest 13 42 14 6 25

Nature of the Times 16 40 7 7 30

No Issue Content 10 22 7 12 49


Constraint correlation across issues
Constraint(Correlation Across Issues)

Sample of Congressional Candidates

Domestic Foreign

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Employ (1) .62 .59 .35 .26 .06 .17

Education (2) .61 .53 .50 .06 .35

Housing (3) .47 .41 -.03 .30

FEPC (4) .47 .11 .23

Econ Aid (5) .19 .59

Military Aid (6) .32

Isolation (7)


Constraint
Constraint

Sample of Population

Domestic Foreign

(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Employ (1) .45 .08 .34 -.04 .10 -.22 Education (2) .12 .29 .06 .14 -.17 Housing (3) .08 -.06 .02 .07

FEPC (4) .27 .13 .02

Econ Aid (5) .16 .33

Military Aid (6) .21

Isolation (7)


Consistency stability
Consistency (Stability)

Correlations Over Time (1958 to 1960)

Party Identification: .72

School Desegregation: .47

FEPC: .42

Guaranteed Employment: .40

Isolationism: .38

Aid to Education: .35

Foreign Ec Aid: .33

Foreign Mil Aid: .31

Federal Housing: .29


Ii mass origins

II. Mass Origins

(Rationalists)


Key

  • Public is attentive

  • Reacts to public debate among electorate

  • Opinions reflect their assessment and judgment of the choices offered them.


Ansolabehere rodden snyder
Ansolabehere, Rodden, Snyder

  • Re-examine Converse

  • Problem of Measurement Error. Bad or Vague Questions.

  • Scales

    • Average a lot of questions of a similar type.

    • Results. Better measures (more stable, more constraint).

  • Voting Equation

    • Issues Matter

    • Two Dimensional Model (what does that imply about constraint?)



Survey design
Survey Design

  • Questions

    • What does each question measure? What is the variable or concept being measured?

    • How does the question map into the variable? Are all possible values covered?

    • There is no single “silver bullet” question for most variables (even things like income).

  • Questionnaires

    • Multiple Measures

    • Placement and Order. A survey is like a conversation.


Basic statistics
Basic Statistics

  • Proportions and Means (and Standard Deviations)

  • Correlations

  • Scales



Valence issues
Valence Issues

  • Valence Defined

  • Issue Ownership

  • Wedge Issues

  • D+I-R, R+I-D


Positional issues
Positional Issues

  • Spatial Positions of Parties and Candidates

  • Salience of Issues


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