Chapter 8. Deviance and Social Control. Social Control ( 社會控制 ). The term social control refers to the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behaviour in any society. Social control occurs on all levels of society (e.g. family, colleges, government, etc.).
Deviance and Social Control
The term social control refers to the
techniques and strategies for preventing
deviant human behaviour in any society.
Social control occurs on all levels of
society (e.g. family, colleges, government,
(e.g., military recruits; college students)
(e.g., informal social control: smiles, laughter, raising an eyebrow, and ridicule…)
Deviance is behaviour that violates the standards
of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
(e.g., in the US, alcoholics, compulsive gamblers,
and the mentally ill would all be classified as
What is deviant in our culture may be celebrated in
another. (being fat in our society vs. Nigeria)
Crime is a violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties. It represents a deviation from formal social norms administered by the state. Laws divide crimes into various categories, depending on the severity of the offence, the age of the offender, the potential punishment that can be levied, and the court that holds jurisdiction over the case.
A professional criminal is a person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals. Some professional criminals specialise in burglary, safecracking, hijacking of cargo, pick-pocketing and shoplifting. Such people have acquired skills that reduce the likelihood of arrest, conviction, and imprisonment. As a result, they may have long careers in their chosen ‘professions’.
It can be considered as the work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in the smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other illegal activities.
Income tax evasion, stock manipulation, consumer fraud, bribery and extraction of ‘kickbacks’, embezzlement, and misrepresentation in advertising– these are all examples of white-collar crime, illegal acts committed in the course of business activities, often by affluent, ‘respectable’ people.
White-collar or index crimes endanger people’s economic or personal well-being against their will (or without their direct knowledge). By contrast, sociologists use the term victimless crimes to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services. (e.g., prostitution, drug abuse, compulsive gambling).