Solution Stuff! More cool stuff about solutions
As you walk into class try to answer these discussion questions on a piece of paper: • Explain how the different types of solutions are alike and how they are different. *Hint think about states of matter. 2. What is a solution? Describe its properties. 3. How can you differentiate between the two parts of a solution?
Can you separate the components of a solution? Yes Distillation or Evaporation
Which one is the solvent? • Air- Nitrogen and oxygen • Antifreeze- water and ethylene glycol • Dentist fillings- silver and mercury • Sterling silver- copper and silver • Ocean Water- Water and salt Fun fact: if we evaporated all the ocean water and were left with just the salt, spread over the earth, it would 45m thick
WATER Its everywhere and its awesome! We need it to live!
Lets start with water The universal solvent!! What do you know about water?
Water and Living Things • Water is the most abundant molecule in living things. • Water has special traits that make it important to life.
Because oxygen atoms are large and hydrogen atoms are small, water is a polar molecule.
Hydrogen bonds form when a covalently-bonded H+ is attracted to a negatively-charged atom in a neighboring molecule. Because of its polarity and hydrogen bonding, water has unique characteristics that benefit living things.
Characteristics of water: • liquid at room temperature • universal solvent for polar molecules • water molecules are cohesive • temperature of water changes slowly • high heat of vaporization • frozen water is less dense so ice floats
Water dissociates and releases hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-). Aqueous Solution- Solutions with water as the solvent are given a special name. Water can dissolve many substances therefore giving it the nick name of “universal solvent”
Demo? • Soluble: A substance dissolves in another substance • Insoluble: A substance does not dissolve in a substance • Polar- • Non-Polar- Some vitamins such as A, D, E and K are soluble in fat. Others are soluble in water like vitamins B2 and B12. Which vitamins would accumulate in the body and which type would be eliminated in urine? Which are nonpolar and which are polar?
Solubility The amount of a solute that will be dissolve in a specific solvent under given conditions. Thus the solubility of a substance is the amount of a solute required to form a saturated solution. Saturated- A solution where no more solute can be dissolved in it. It contains as much solute as it possibly can. Movie theater example Unsaturated- has less then the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved. Supersaturated- a solution which contains a greater amount of solute then that needed to create a saturated solution. Everyone try to make a saturated solution.
“Likes dissolve likes” Polar Nonpolar Ionic
Electrolytes • Electrolyte- dissolves in water, breaks up into ions and conducts an electric current. • Nonelectrolyte- dissolves in water, does not break up into ions, therefore not conducting electricity NaCl Example in water Vs Sugar in water
Homework questions • Vultures are a type of bird that is able to eat rotting meat because of extremely strong gastric juices. These gastric juices are actually aqueous solutions. What is an aqueous solution? • When too many restaurants open in the same neighborhood, you may hear people say that the market for restaurants is saturated. Explain what us meant by this statement and relate it to saturated solutions. • What is a saturated solution? Unsaturated solution? Supersaturated solution? • What the difference between electrolyte and nonelectrolyte? • Come up with two different questions that could be asked on an exam and the answers to those questions