GREAT PANDA Panda bear bamboo (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) predatory mammal species niedźwiedziowatych family (Ursidae). Panda population bamboo forests at an altitude of 1600-3500 meters above sea level (winter descends to 800 m above sea level). Its membership of prey no doubt, but in reality, animal feeds almost exclusively bamboo shoots, though - like most predatory animals - do not despise eggs and rodents that eat with food plants. Panda them very much - a day needs about 38 kg of feed. For a long time it was known to the family as a distant relative of szopowatych pandas small, but genetic studies have shown that the panda is related to bears, from which separated in the early development of the family niedźwiedziowatych. Its closest relative is the Andean bear. Panda is one of the animals on the verge of extinction, mainly due to low fertility, but also due to the gradual reduction of the available area.
HABITAT AND ENVIRONMENT Panda population mountain ranges located in the provinces of Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi in the People's Republic of China. Live in bamboo forests at an altitude of 1600-3500 meters above sea level (winter descends to 800 m above sea level). Climate in which they live is cold and damp. At an altitude of 1600-2000 meters above sea level growing deciduous forest in which some plants do not lose their leaves in the winter. Panda sometimes visits to the area, especially during the growth of young bamboo shoots. At an altitude of 2000-2600 meters above sea level there is a mixed forest, above and, to a height of 3600 m above sea level, growing coniferous forest. The next floor vegetation to alpine vegetation, bare rocks and eternal snows zone, but Panda does not exceed the coniferous forests. Its favorite habitats are at an altitude of 2500-3200 meters above sea level She goes regularly to a height of 2000 m above the sea level and below - rare. Cover all the forests, where there is a Panda, is created by the bamboo. Thickets of bamboo, which is for pandas at the same time and hiding place, and - above all - a source of food, are protected by tall trees. Unfortunately, more and more forests make up the environment panda is cut by the people in the fields.
Description of the species Dimensions: The height at the withers :from sixty to eighty centimeters Body length :1,2-1,5 (head and torso) Length of tail : from twelve to thirteen centimeter Body weight : 75-115 kg males, females lighter by 10% -20% General Information Sexual maturity: from five to six year The mating season:from March to May Pregnancy: 97-163 days Delayed implantation embryo : 1.5-4 months The numbers of young in per litter: from one to three, usually only one survives Lifespan: from twenty to thirty years The number: around thousand individuals
Panda fur - white or yellowish with black bezels - to camouflage the animal in partial shade bamboo trim. The coat is also excellent protection against the cold. Hair length is 3-10 cm, depending on the area of the body. Fur is soaked in tallow secretions and protects pandas from rain and snow. Panda head is round, short, broad and massive. The zygomatic arches are very highly educated, making it a good place for jaw muscle attachment. Panda does not move or lips or ears to manifest aggression. Panda has 40 teeth. The teeth were adapted to the food intake - molars and premolars have a wide rear friction surfaces. Two black borders around the eyes pandas make it difficult to see the look in her eyes. Pupils at the pandas are vertically stacked, which resemble the eyes of cats. The interior of the esophagus is covered with a tough, horny lining of the stomach and has a thick muscular walls that protect it from sharp splinter of bamboo stalks. Forelegs pandas have a "sixth finger", busy and opposite to the others. It was formed as a result of the development of one of the bones of the wrist. It is equipped with an extra bulb on the plantar surface of the foot. This allows adjustment of not slip bamboo stalks from the clutches of a panda. Stopochodnym panda is an animal, it moves in a characteristic way, with the feet facing inwards and head bowed low. Panda is able to stand on its hind legs, but he can not move in this position. In addition, panda sometimes trots or gallops up. He likes to climb trees.
Systematics Zoologists have always been problems with classifying the giant panda to the appropriate family. According to the discoverer of pandas, the father of Armand David, no doubt it was a bear. But according to the author's official description, zoologist Milne-Edwards' case was not so clear, although its first publication in 1872, has tended toward the bears. In 1901, however, was placed in a panda szopowatych family, which also belong panda small. Both species are very different from each other, but live in the same woods and feed on bamboo. In 1964, studying the anatomy of the giant panda was found that despite the fact that the reproductive organs of the reproductive system more like a shed than a bear, it has enough features to qualify it to niedźwiedziowatych. Some scientists have proposed, however, to qualify panda large and small to separate families, which would be located between the szopowatymi and niedźwiedziowatymi. However, in 1985 the U.S. team conducted a molecular tests by which specified that panda bears is closer than any other family of prey.
Life style • Pandas usually live alone. They occupy an area of district 4-6,5 km. Roam their territory in search of new bamboo shoots slowly to conserve energy. Are most active at dawn and dusk, but also meet them night and day. The territories of males and females are the same size. These are small areas comparable to the territories of the brown bear. Panda did not regularly traverse the entire territory. Adult females retain the distance between their territories, which is about 30 acres, while males do not hesitate to approach other representative species during their migration. Animals are unlikely to come into contact with each other. The face is very expressive by black spots on white fur, so they do not have a clear facial expressions. Sometimes communicate with the voices, especially during breeding, when these animals are noisy. Pandas communicate well through olfactory signals. They have short tails hidden under two about anal glands, which mean the tree on its territory. This behavior applies primarily males. These characters are usually left on the road, which panda walks, rarely on the territory. Sometimes these animals also leave trees on the same claw marks. Pandas rarely staying together. The combined steam only during reproduction. Only the young, who have not yet reached a mature age, they share the same territory temporarily.
Pokarm Pandas favorite food is bamboo. From November to March, it only leaves and young stems, from April to June eats the mature stalks, and from July to October, almost exclusively list. Panda eats every day huge amounts of this plant. After meals pandas leave traces in the form of piles of chips. But bamboo is not the only food of pandas. It eats grass and other plants, and sometimes fish, rodents, eggs, honey or pika (szczekuszki) - Asian type rabbit. Panda is in fact carnivorous animal, but "switched" on a completely plant diet. Her digestive system is not as well adapted to a vegetarian diet because panda consumes only 17% bamboo eaten (herbivores digest 80% of food eaten). Therefore panda spends 16 hours a day for food.
Breeding The mating season Males and females meet in the spring, between March and May. They stay together for one to two days, during which there is a frequent hiding. When around a single female gathering some male, comes to fighting, where the winner will be entitled to a female.
Motherhood Panda Pregnancy lasts 97-163 days. In August, born 1-3 young (in the wild is the most common one young, in the case of the second twin pregnancy the baby is abandoned by his mother and therefore sentenced to death, the high number of young being born in captivity due to an additional artificial insemination after covering ) in very low advanced stage of development. Weighing 75-150 g It is assumed that, as in some other species of mammals, there is the phenomenon of delayed pand implantation. At the time of the birth the female seeks refuge in a rock cavity or hollow tree. Panda odchować rarely more than one young, due to its total dependence on the mother. For the first few months of the young pandas only food is mother's milk to suckle at the beginning of 6-14 times a day, each time to a half hour. Young remains in a shelter for 4-7 weeks. Mother leaves the hideout just to satisfy hunger and thirst. Leave the shelter with a young beginning when it is covered with fur and open eyes (between 45-48 day). But Young was still unable to walk, so the mother must be worn. About 5-6 months old young panda begins to feed on bamboo. Definitive weaning takes about 8-9 months. Relationship with a young mother still continues. Split up after about 18 months. In this way a female can odchować one young every 2-3 years. Young pandas, which begin lonely life, often fall prey to leopards and wild dogs. It was only at the age of 30 months, when the panda now weighs about 80 kg, no longer have any natural enemies.
Zagrożenia i ochrona The reasons for the extinction of the giant panda One of the main causes of the extinction of the giant panda is a human activity. Even in ancient times, people believed it to be very valuable fur. This animal has always been rare, so fur had only distinguished persons. Nowadays, people are destroying the natural environment by cutting forests pandas into fields, which interferes with the movement and reproduction of animals. The big problem in the modern world is also poaching. Another reason for the disappearance of the giant panda is the mass death of bamboo in large spaces. Bamboos because they have it to yourself that precedes the death of their flowering shoots. This situation is about 40 years. Such regular bamboo shoots death is a problem only since the reduction and fragmentation of habitat pandas. In the past, in fact enough that the animals moved to another valley to find another species of bamboo, or the one that became extinct in the previous habitat, and a new growing at a younger stage.The world is becoming less pandas also because of the difficulty in reproducing. Female pandas can be born because up to three young, but usually only one survives. Next the young are born and after two years. Such a long transition period makes more pandas die than are born.
Preventing extinction To save the giant panda in China was established 12 nature reserves.Wolong nature reserve, the largest of all, is also a research center, which conducted the giant panda breeding in captivity. This reserve is a good example of a real threat hanging over pandas. In the mid-eighties, the population in this reserve estimated at 130-140 animals. However, ten years later, this population has declined by about 50%.In rescuing pandas also involved large zoos around the world. The first panda was taken dozoo in the United States in 1936. A further 14 animals left in China in the years 1936 to 1946, but until 1949, when he started export controls, China has left more than 770 pandas. Then, to 1983 exported up to 24 individuals.
Attempts to propagation in captivity In the years 1963-1983 were recorded in China and in captive 51 born pandas , but only 19 young survived more than two months. In captivity, it is very difficult to synchronize male and female physiology. Also, artificial rearing of young pandas makes a lot of difficulties, because the milk is pandas not like any other mammal milk. It all makes the birth of a baby panda in captivity are a worldwide sensation. In recent years, captive born in is five great pandas : Tai Shan, born July 9, 2005 at the National Zoo in Washington, DC Su Lin, born August 2, 2005 in San Diego Zoo Mei Lan, born September 6, 2006 at Zoo Atlanta Fu Long, born 23 August 2007 in Tiergarten Schönbrunn in Vienna Long Xin, born May 8, 2009 at the zoo in San Diego
Ways protective: - Breeding and multiplication in zoos? - preventing the extinction of bamboo forests,? - a combination of the so-called corridors system bamboo that would allow free movement between reserves, population mixing and exchange genes
DID YOU KNOW ? • - Chinese called panda galoot, cat or a great galoot bamboo • - the first mention panda about derived from the Chinese chronicles three thousands years • they are protected since nineteen - thirty nine • - are only representative of prey, which feed are exclusively plants • observed in panda eating bamboo shoots about 3500 one after another • the female is capable of to inseminate a few days in the year • although it belongs to the family of bears do not on fall asleep winter, only moves in lower, warmer parts of the mountains • newborn pandas have very loud squeak, thus give itself felt, for example in order not to be crushed.
Did you know that ...On the black market in Japan panda is worth 180 000 dollars, but poachers caught on the animal trafficking carries the death penalty. A portrait of the giant panda was chosen as the symbol of the World Wildlife Protection Fund (WWF).
As for me, it's amazing pets panda - a huge bear, which is not enough, it is beautiful in appearance it still sits on a tree and eating the bamboo. For me, pandas are cute pets.
Wykorzystane źródła: Wikipedia Blogi Oraz grafika google