Personality and Exercise. 7. Research Objectives of the Study of Personality. Are certain personality attributes antecedents to physical activity/exercise participation? Do certain personality attributes develop as a consequence of physical activity/exercise participation?.
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Research Objectives of the Study of Personality • Are certain personality attributes antecedents to physical activity/exercise participation? • Do certain personality attributes develop as a consequence of physical activity/exercise participation?
Personality Defined • Underlying, relatively stable, psychological structures and processes that organize human experience and shape a person’s actions and reactions to the environment.
Structure of Personality • Personality core • Typical responses to situations • Role-related behaviors Role-related behaviors Internal External Dynamic Constant Typical responses Psychological core
Approaches to the Studyof Personality • Learning/situational approaches • Behavior best explained by individual’s reaction to the environment • Dispositional/trait theories • Personality is derived from stable, enduring attributes that lead to consistent responses over time/situations
Biological Theories • Ancient Greek theory of humors • Constitutional theory (Sheldon, 1942) • Individuals possess certain somatotypes (body types)
Trait Theories • Thoughts, feelings, behavior, emanate from inside the person (not the situation) • Trait versus State • Three related theories: • Eysenck’s personality theory • Cattell’s personality theory • Five factor model
Eysenck’s Framework and Exercise • Extroversion: • Exercise increased stimulation exercise adoption/adherence • Higher pain tolerance • Preference for higher intensity activity • Report lower RPE • Overall, greater likelihood of PA • Neuroticism • Exercise more stable, less neurotic personality
Eysenck’s Framework and Exercise Research shows that personality can change as a result of regular physical activity: 1. exercise reduced the negative factors of neuroticism 2. and enhanced the positive factors (extroversion)
Cattell’s Personality Theory • Isolated 16 personality traits that he thought were the essence of personality • 16 Personality Factor questionnaire (16PF)—used in sport personality and exercise studies
Cattell’s Personality Theory = Emotionality (i.e., neuroticism) = Extraversion-introversion;
Cattell’s Personality Theory and Exercise • Individuals who are highly fitness have lower anxiety and neuroticism; greater emotional stability, placidity, and relaxation • Individuals with lower levels of anxiety and neuroticism respond favorably to intense physical training
Cattell’s Personality Theoryand Exercise • Higher fitness lower emotionality • Exercise reduced emotionality
Other Personality Factors in Exercise Research • Sex-role orientation • Instrumental (M) & expressive (F) types • Exercise preferences • Type A behavior pattern • Anger, hostility, competitiveness, achievement striving, etc.
Type A Behavior Pattern and Exercise • Exercise has been shown to be effective in reducing this behavior pattern as well as cardiovascular disease (but results of studies are not uniform) • Coronary-prone personality • Anger/hostility are important features for increased risk of cardiovascular disease
Hardiness • “Constellation of personality characteristics that function as a resistance resource in the encountering of stressful life events”-Kobass, et. al. 1982. P. 169 • Hardiness is linked to physical health (Kobass, 1979). • Higher tendency to engage in physical activity and exercise • Components are • Highly committed, dedicated, or involved person • Perceives like events as opportunities not hurdles • High sense of control over events
Practical Recommendations • Individuals who seem to be more emotional/neurotic might be encouraged to begin a regular exercise program • “Exercise dose” should be the same as is given to improve fitness and encourage weight loss • Exercise programs should include some type of aerobic activity: • These activities seem to influence personality factors
Personality Matching* Individuals who do not exercise regularly are likely to experience additional challenges or obstacles when they engage in activities that require them to behave differently from their customary patterns. Beginning exercisers have one fewer barrier to success if they choose sports and fitness programs that are highly similar to their personality profiles. *Gavin, J. (2004) Pairing Personality With Activity. Physician & Sportsmedicine, (32), 12, 1-9.
Does Compatibility Breedadherence? • Greater hours of exercise participation • Higher degree of self-esteem & positive mood states • Greater exercise satisfaction
Seven dimensions pertinent to activity-based analyses. • Sociability • Spontaneity (degree of predictability) • Self-motivation • Aggressiveness • Competitiveness • Concentration (mental focus) • Risk taking
Does Lap Swimming Match your Personality? Low in sociability Low in spontaneity Highly internal Low to moderate forcefulness Low in competitiveness Low in focus Low in risk taking
Professional Practice • Have the client choose an activity compare it to their perceived personality traits. • Helps clients become more aware of how personal preferences correspond to different activities.
Other Personality Factors & Adherence • Explanatory Style (Pessimistic vs. Optimistic) • Over-estimators • Sense of self • Malingering Athlete
Explanatory Style • Pessimistic explanatory style • Personality caused:”It my own fault” • Stable over time: “I’m never going to play” • Global: “the rest of my life” • Health effects • Immune system function • Poorer health
Dispositional Optimism • Investigations are consistent • Cardiovascular and, • Immunological function is associated with optimism(Petersonet.al, 1991;Scheiver & Carver, 1987) • Optimism mitigates the stress-illness relationship • Link between optimism and recovery
Studies with Injured Athletes • Athletes who are high in neuroticism and possess pessimistic explanatory style display maladaptive behavior show longer rehab or incomplete recovery • Grove, Stewart & Gordon (1990) with athletes with ACL damage • Grove & Bahnsen (1997) with 72 injured athletes
Over-estimators • Athletes and heavy invested exercise clients in general perceive injury as more serious than it really is when compared to the AT or PTsperception (Crossman & Jamieson, 1985) • Over-estimatorsexperience greater pain, more anger, withdrawal, and show slow recover.
Interventions • One-to-one visit • Fear, sadness, embarrassment, guilt & anger, feelings of being over whelmed by the demands of rehab—signs of neuroticism • Ask the “why” statement…. • Insight into athlete’s explanatory style • Pay attention to the athlete or client attributional comments…..Re-attributional training
Interventions • Injured Pessimistic Athletes and exercisers usually feel helplessness and depressed. • These athlete or clinetfail to follow recommended recovery programs (especially when unsupervised). • They demonstrate a lack of persistence in the face of poor or slow progress in their recovery. • Health professionals should offer advise in: • how to cope, • prevent athletic or client isolation, • and provide emotional support.
Sense of Self • If someone has only one basis for a sense of self, if that sense of self is threatened (injury), so will the entire person……Erikson, 1968 • If the athlete’s (clients) sense of self is threatened the athlete (client) will view the injury as severe loss which results in anxiety, depression, or hopelessness (Brewer, 1993). • Sense of self is similar to self-identity!
Self-Identity • Defined as all of the people, things, and experiences that provide validation and a sense of worth (Brewer, 1993). • Social relationships • Career • School, • Sport, • Exercise, • Cultural activities, and etc..
Athletic Identity • If self- identity is based on one large and important piece and that piece is removed, people are left with limited avenues for satisfaction, enjoyment, and validation… • Being an athlete or highly fit person could be a major piece.
Athletic or Exercise Identity • Athletes or exercisers who are seriously involved • Athletes or exercisers who over invest in sports or exercise involvement • When injured these athletes or exercisers: • Lose sense of self (e.g., “If I am not an athlete, then who am I?”) • Usually experience negative rehab, lack confidence in their abilities to recover, lack motivation, experience high anxiety, and focus on injury.
What can be done? • Maintain the athlete’s or exercise identity by: • Keep them involved in some form of sport or exercise activity (cross training). • Maintain their fitness level by redirecting them to another physical area such as weight training, swimming, etc. • They need social validation by coaches and teammates if they are an athlete or other exercisers or exercise leader if they are a exerciser.
Malingerers • Athlete or client who lie about an injury to avoid practice or workout • Pathological avoidance behavior • Cling to their symptoms and disabilities • Mimic disorders • Show pain and suffering on a moment’s notice • Need for attention but has a great fear of getting caught
What is the cause? • Behavior has been learned, adopted as acceptable, rewarded and is done willfully or habitually (Ogilvie & Tutko, 1966). • History (e.g., being spoiled at an early age) • Learned at an early age that the parent or coach would always intervene or rescue them from trouble. • Modeling (I.e. parent, coach, another athlete) • Very fearful of being exposed and is always on guard • Clings to dishonesty at all cost.
Interventions • Give strictly defined boundaries of behavior and detail the consequences when stepping outside those boundaries. • Three strikes and your out! • Establish and record specific rehab goals. • Agree upon times for treatment • Agree on the length of the program • Agree on the athlete’s or client’s responsibility • Provide rewards early in rehab then once they comply vary the frequency of giving the reward.
Summary Personality is a difficult field of study but certain personality styles are directly, positively correlated to exercise adherence and compliance to rehab, and speed of recovery from an injury.
Newsletter Assignment • Entitle the newsletter, “Myths and Facts about Exercise.” • The subtitle will reflect the topic: “The effect of exercise on one’s personality” • Develop a newsletter for each topic discussing the myths or facts about the affect of exercise and physical activity. • Personality • Self-concept & Self-esteem • Anxiety • Depression • Mood • Cognition • Each newsletter will inform, provide facts, and provide supportive evidence (at least 2 references). Reference need to be cited within (APA style) and at end of letter (full reference). • After each topic has been covered in class. The instructor will assign when the newsletter will be due. • Each newsletter is worth 10 points toward your assignment grade. • If you fail to submit a newsletter, you will lose all the assignment newsletter assignment points for a total of 60 points.