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What does a plant need to ‘eat?’ CO2 (PS) + H2O (PS + hydraulic structure + TS) and PowerPoint Presentation
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What does a plant need to ‘eat?’ CO2 (PS) + H2O (PS + hydraulic structure + TS) and essential elements To synthesize all that it is: cellulose and wall polymers cytoplasm (including proteins) membranes (lipids, fatty acids) vitamins, co factors, ions and solutes regulators

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

What does a plant need to ‘eat?’

CO2 (PS) + H2O (PS + hydraulic structure + TS)

and

essential elements

To synthesize all that it is:

cellulose and wall polymers

cytoplasm (including proteins)

membranes (lipids, fatty acids)

vitamins, co factors, ions and solutes

regulators

The source of all plants’ food is from

soil solution and atmosphere, where

required compounds are present in

VERY dilute quantities ---

plants have to scavenge, and concentrate

nutrients before building their bodies

slide2

Essential elements are required for

a plant to complete its life cycle.

They were discovered by

hydroponic culture and experiments

leaving proposed essential elements

out of the nutrient solution

Deficiency symptoms can be

categorized by showing up:

1) in lower (older) tissues first,

if so, the element is a mobile ion such as

K+, NO3-, and Mg+ and is transported

from older to younger tissue when the soil

does not provide enough for plant growth;

2) in upper (younger) tissues first,

if so, the element is an immobile ion such

as Ca++ and other divalent cations, once

incorporated into tissue, not easily extracted.

slide3

C HOPKNS CaFe Mg

a mnemonic for

remembering the

essential macronutrients

Fe is an exception

slide7

Cations often interact with negative

charges on the surface of clay

cations are present

in soil bound

ionically to soil

surface

= “cation bank”

pH of soil

determines

cation availability

acid soils are

cation-depleted

liming + fertilizer

restores nutrient

content of soil

anions do not

bind and thus are

easily lost from

the soil solution

during too much

rain/flooding

Organic matter

Organic

matter

Clay particle

Sand grain

Root hair

Clay particle

Clay particle

Sand grain

Anions usually dissolve in soil water;

they are readily available for

absorption by root hairs

slide8

Most nutrients are taken up by root hairs. Ions are dissolved in solution – the solution travels apoplastically through the cell walls to the endodermis (Casparian Strip) where it has to enter the symplast.

slide9

The Nernst equation helps us know whether ion/solute distribution

is passive or active:

(Nernst potential) EN= 2.3 RT X logCo [2.3RT ~ 59]

z F Ci

The Nernst equation states that at equilibrium, the difference

in concentration of an ion between two compartments

is balanced by the voltage difference

between the two compartments.

EN (Nernst potential) is the

membrane potential that would

allow passive distribution at a

give concentration gradient

EN predicts the concentration gradient

that would allow the membrane potential

to equal ENwithpassive flux of that ion/solute

ATP

H+

H+

ADP

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

K+

H+

A-

slide10

Most plants are associated with fungi;

  • together fungal hyphae and roots make
  • up mycorrhizae. These structures:
  • increase the surface area of the nutrient gathering membranes;
  • assist in digesting organic materials in the soil for uptake into the plant;
  • increase water uptake
  • possibly ‘fertilize’ soil with CH2O from their host plant
slide11

Uptake of N is a special case, and in the case of legumes, is accomplished by

symbiosis with Rhizobium

slide12

Trapped

insect

Many plants obtain nutrition from digesting animals, and some plants parasitize others