imperialism n.
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  1. Imperialism

  2. Building Overseas Empires Ch. 12 Sec. 1

  3. Vocabulary Focus • Imperialism: • domination by one country of the political, economic, and cultural life of another country or region • Protectorate: • country with its own government but under the control of an outside power • Sphere of Influence: • area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges

  4. Causes of Imperialism • 1. Economics: • Industrial Revolution created needs/desires that caused want for overseas expansion • want for rubber, petroleum, manganese, palm oil • Hoped for new markets to sale manufactured goods • Bankers invested for profits

  5. 2. Political and Military motives: • Ships needed ports around the world to take on coal and supplies • Nationalism played a role- when one country moved into an area, other Euro countries countered to prevent expansion

  6. 3. Humanitarian and Religious Goals • Missionaries, doctors, & colonial officials believed they had a duty to “spread the blessings of Western culture” • 4. Social Darwinism • Westerners embraced ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest • West was superior than other “weaker” races

  7. Spread of Western Imperialism • Weakness of non-western states • Ottoman Turks, Mughal India, Qing China in decline • Slave trade weakened West Africa • Western Advantages • Strong economies, well-organized governments, powerful militaries, superior technology/medicine

  8. Resisting Imperialism: • Africans and Asians especially tried to resist Western expansion • Western-educated Africans and Asians organized nationalist movements to expel imperialist • Facing Criticisms at home • Small group of anti-imperialists emerged • Moving toward greater democracy at home, but imposing undemocratic rule on other peoples

  9. Forms of Imperial Rule • 1. Direct rule - France • Send officials and soldiers to administer their colonies • 2. Indirect Rule – Great Britain • Used sultans, chiefs, or other local rulers to rule, and encouraged the children to attend British schools- could still use force if necessary

  10. 3. Protectorate: • Local rulers left in place but were expected to follow the advice of Euro advisors • Costs less to run than a colony, usually did not require large commitment of military forces • 4. Sphere of Influence: • Area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges • Carved these spheres in China & other areas to prevent conflict among themselves

  11. Partition of Africa Ch. 12 Sec. 2

  12. Vocabulary Focus • Paternalistic: • the system of governing a country as a father would a child • Westerners saw Africans as children in need of guidance • Elite: • upper class

  13. Africa early 1800s • North Africa: • Sahara and fertile land along Mediterranean • Remained under declining Ottoman rule (Muslims) • West Africa: • UsmandanFodio called for social and religious reforms based on the sharia (Islamic law) • Literacy increased, local wars quieted, trade improved • Inspired other Islamic reform movements

  14. East Africa: • Islam was very influential where in port cities there was profitable trade • Slaves were often the cargo, but ivory and copper were exchanged for cloth and firearms • Southern Africa: • Zulus led by Shaka ruled much of the south • Set off mass migrations and wars- Boer Wars

  15. Sierra Leone • 1787 British organized this colony in West Africa for former slaves to live • Later more freed blacks from US settled in nearby Liberia- 1847 it had become an independent republic

  16. European Contact • 1500-1700 Europeans traded on coast but did not move interior • 1800s with medical advancements and steamboat- that changed • Some wanted to map the interior- did not understand the people they met • Catholic and Protestant missionaries followed

  17. Livingstone Blazes a Trail • Crisscrossed Africa for 30 years • Wrote about people he met- more sympathy/ less bias • To end slave trade- open interior to Christianity and trade • 1869- Henry Stanley tracked him down • “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

  18. Scramble for Colonies • 1884 Berlin Conference • No Africans were invited to the conference • Recognized King Leopold’s claim to the Congo- called for free trade along the Congo and Niger rivers • Agreed Euro power could not claim any part of Africa unless it had an established government with an office • Race to colonize Africa had begun

  19. European Colonies • Belgians under King Leopold exploited the riches of the Congo • Brutalized the villagers and forced them to work • Leopold was forced to turn his colony over to the Belgium government • better treatment, still exploited • France extended its influence along Mediterranean into Tunisia, as well as West and Central Africa

  20. Britain’s land was scattered but was more heavily populated than France’s • West and East Africa, Egypt, and Sudan • In south Africa, Britain clashed with the Boers (decedents of Dutch settlers)- forcing the Boers to move north • Late 1800s: Boers found gold and diamonds • led to conflict with Britain- who won but at great cost (Boer War) • Led to Union of South Africa- racial segregation

  21. Portuguese: Angola and Mozambique • Italy: Libya and into the “horn” • Germany: eastern and southern lands- Cameroons and Togo

  22. African Resist Imperialism • French fought SamoriToure who led Algerians • British battled Zulus in southern Africa and Asante in the west • Germans fought against the Yao and Herero • Ethiopia succeeded in resisting Euro colonization under Menelik II • Modernized Ethiopia and defeated Italians • Only independent nation besides Liberia

  23. African Elite emerge • Some Western-educated Africans admired western ways and rejected their own culture • Others valued their African traditions and condemned Western societies • By 1900s African leaders were forging nationalist movements to pursue self-determination and independence

  24. Germany Strengthens Chapt. 10 Sec. 2

  25. Vocabulary Focus • Kulturkampf • Bismarck’s “Battle for Civilization” in which his goal was to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above their allegiance to the Church • Social Welfare • Programs to help certain groups of people

  26. Germany Becomes an Industrial Giant • Germany possessed many of the industrial factors-behind Great Britain • Disciplined and educated workforce helped the economy • Rapid population growth provided huge home market/workforce • Government supported applied sciences and promoted economic development

  27. The Iron Chancellor • Otto von Bismarck became first Chancellor of the newly unified German empire • Pursued several foreign-policy goals • Wanted to keep France weak while building strong links with Austria and Russia • Respected British Navy but did not compete with them • Domestic policies dealt with: • Sought to erase local loyalties and crush all opposition to the imperial state • Targeted Catholic Church and the Socialists

  28. Campaign against the Church and Socialists • Campaign against the Church: • Catholics made up about a third of the German population • Bismarck distrusted Catholics- especially the clergy- whose first loyalty was to the Pope instead of the state • Launched Kulturkampf“Battle for Civilization”- his goal was to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above allegiance to the Church • His moves against the Church backfired- the faithful rallied behind the Church and the Catholic party gained strength in the Reichstag • Bismarck admitted his mistake and worked to make peace with theChurch

  29. Campaign against the Socialists: • Bismarck feared that socialists would undermine the loyalty of German workers and turn them toward revolution • Had laws passed that dissolved socialist groups, shut down their newspapers, and banned their meetings • His plan backfired again- workers were unified in support of the socialist cause • Bismarck then set out to “woo” workers away from socialism- he became a pioneer in social reform • Workers benefitted from Bismarck’s plan but still did not abandon socialism

  30. Kaiser William II • 1888 William II succeeded his grandfather as Kaiser • Supremely confident and sought to put his own stamp on Germany • 1890- asked Otto von Bismarck to resign- “There is only one master in the Reich, and that is I.”

  31. William resisted efforts to introduce democratic reforms • His government did provide programs for social welfare, cheap transportation, excellent public school education • Spent lavish amounts of German money on German military- already the most powerful in Europe • Also launched a campaign to expand the German Navy- won an overseas empire to rival those of Britain and France • His ambitious and aggressive military stance increased tensions on the eve of World War I

  32. Japan Modernizes Ch. 13 Sec. 1

  33. Japan Opens Up • July 1853 American ships under Matthew Perry landed in Tokyo Bay • Letter from President Fillmore demanded Japan open its borders to trade • Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854- Japan agreed to open two ports to American ships, but not for trade • US quickly won rights on trade, extraterritoriality, and low taxes on American imports • Led to social and economic unrest

  34. Meiji Restoration (1868-1912) • Under the new emperor- Mutsuhito (took the name Meiji meaning “enlightened rule”) the capital moved from Kyoto to Edo and was renamed Tokyo • Moto: “A rich country, a strong military” • Studied Western ways and adapted them to Japanese needs- invited westerners to teach Japanese • Created a strong central government from the previous feudal order • All citizens were equal before the law

  35. Leaders made the economy a major priority • Encouraged Japanese to adopt western business ideas • New Constitution ended legal distinctions between classes • Distinctions survived, but improved laws for the lower classes • Japan modernized with amazing speed • By 1890 Japan was strong enough to force Western powers to revise the unequal treaties

  36. Japan’s Growing Military Strength • As it grew as an industrial power, its economic needs fed its imperial desires • Japan lacked many of the basic resources needed for industrialization • Japan focused on Korea- at crossroads of East Asia, it was already the focus of Russia, China, and now Japan • 1876- Japan forced Korea to open its ports to trade • 1894- composistion over Korea led Japan and China to the First Sino-Japansese War • Japan defeated the Chinese!

  37. Ten years later- japan challenged Russia for territory in Korea and Manchuria- Russo-Japanese war • Japan defeated Russian troops in Manchuria and its navy nearly destroyed the Russian fleet • Japan made Korea a protectorate, then annexed it outright • Ruled Korea for 35 years before a violence broke out • March First Movement became a rallying symbol for Korean nationalists • By the early 1900s- Japan was the strongest power in Asia

  38. Imperialism in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ch. 13 Sec. 2

  39. Europeans Colonize Southeast Asia • Dutch East Indies Established • 1600s Dutch East India Company established bases on the island of Java and in the Moluccas (Spice Islands)- eventually spread to Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) • British in Burma and Malaya • Early 1800s Burmese (from present day Myanmar) suffered disastrous defeats in several wars with the British • After conquering Burma/Myanmar, the British continued inot Malaya (major port city of Singapore)

  40. French Indochina Seized • Portuguese are in Vietnam first, French missionaries moved in to convert- Vietnamese resisted Western influence • French moved in to protect missionaries – by 18600 France seized portion of southern Vietnam- eventually took over rest of Vietnam, all of Laos and Cambodia • Siam (present-day Thailand) Survives • Mongkut- king of Siam did not underestimate Western power- he studied foreign languages and read on modern sciences and mathematics • Used knowledge to negotiate treaties

  41. United States and the Philippines • US was at war with Spain- Spanish American War 1898 • US defeated the Spanish which the Filipinos saw as an opportunity to declare independence from Spain • Filipinos thought US would recognize their independence but what they didn’t know is US paid Spain $20 million for control of the Philippines • Filipinos then fought the US for independence and US crushed the rebellion after years of war

  42. China and the New Imperialism Sec. 5

  43. Vocabulary Words • Balance of Trade: difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports • trade surplus: situation in which a country exports more than it imports • Trade deficit: situation in which a country imports more than it exports • Indemnity: payment for losses in war • Extraterritoriality: right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation • Open Door Policy: American approach to China around 1900, favoring open trade relations between China and other nations

  44. Chinese Trade • Regulations had ensured China had a favorable balance of trade • Strict limits on foreign trade • Euro merchants restricted to a small area • Sold them silk, porcelain, & tea for gold & silver • China= trade surplus/ Westerners= trade deficit

  45. Opium War • Late 1700s: British merchants traded opium for Chinese tea- popular in Britain • Chinese began to buy opium with silver enough to disrupt the economy • Chinese government outlawed opium and executed drug dealers • Called on Britain to end the trade which British refused

  46. 1839: Chinese warships clashed with British merchants- triggered Opium War • British gunboats bombarded Chinese coastal ports • Chinese easily defeated • 1842: Chinese forced to sign Treaty of Nanjing • Britain received huge indemnity • British gained island of Hong Kong • China had to open 5 ports to trade • Chinese grated British citizens extraterritoriality

  47. Taiping Rebellion Weakens China • 1800s: Qing dynasty in decline • Irrigation systems & canals poorly maintained • Population explosion created hardships for China’s peasants • Extravagant court/ tax evasion/ widespread corruption • 1850-1864 Taiping Rebellion • Hong Xiuquan called for end to Qing dynasty • Rebels won control of large parts of China for 14 years

  48. Rebellion almost toppled Qing dynasty • Qing government survived but had to share power with regional commanders • Europeans continued pressure and Russia seized lands in the north