Topic: Types of Globalization & Types of Diffusion • Aim: In what ways does globalization make the world ‘flat’ • Do Now: What is your impression of the pictures on the screen?
Standard 5: Human Geography Characterize and Analyze Changing Interconnections Among Places: • At the heart of a geographical perspective is a concern with the ways in which events and processes operating in one place can influence those operating at other places. Thus, students should view places and patterns not in isolation, but in terms of their spatial and functional relationship with other places and patterns. Moreover, they should strive to be aware that those relationships are constantly changing, and they should understand how and why change occurs.
Globalization - the ever increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change Interdependence In A Globalizing World:
In your notebook, take 2-3 minutes to brainstorm all of the positive and negative impacts of globalization today. Think geographically in terms of things like culture, economics, politics, technology, etc.
Apple Factory, China: Suicide nets were put in to stop a rash of suicides from employees
Bangladesh Factory Collapse: • “NEW YORK - The Children’s Place, a clothing-store chain, has acknowledged sourcing from the Bangladeshi factory complex that collapsed last month and killed more than 1,100 people. But far from the rubble, on a slow day at a store in the Flatlands section of Brooklyn, the faraway deaths had yet to inspire a new awareness about the people who stitch the $4 “Royal Cutie” T-shirts, $9 floral onesies and $10 blue plaid shorts…” The Hidden Costs of Buying on the Cheap, by Anand Giridharad, NY Times, May 17th, 2013
Globalization & Placelessness: • Globalization can create a sense of ‘placelessness’. This is due a number of factors including: • Global communications link world regions (Facebook, Instagram, e.g.) • Global transportation moves goods quickly • Transnational conglomerate corporations; international financial institutions more powerful than many countries • Globalized markets for consumer goods (needed or not), e.g. - Jeans all around the world
Technology & Time-Space Compression: http://awesome.good.is/transparency/web/1009/the-world-of-data/flat.html Space-Time Compression: The reduction of time it takes for something to reach another place Because of technology connections between spaces is faster—the time has been compressed
The Geopolitical Component: • Globalization goes beyond national boundaries • United Nations provides representation to all countries • Global trade and cultural exchange are the product of international agreements • Environmental Concerns: • Globalized economy creates and intensifies environmental problems, disrupts local ecosystems as transnational firms search for natural resources and factory sites • Native peoples may lose resource base • Globalization aggravates world environmental problems (climate change, air & water pollution, deforestation)
Social Dimensions: • Increased international migration • Asians, Latin Americans to the U.S. • Africans, Asians to Western Europe • Japan and Korea less homogeneous • Immigrants from poor countries to less poor countries nearby • Criminal element to globalization • Terrorism • Drugs- Economies reorient to drug smuggling & money laundering • Pornography, prostitution, sex-trafficking • Gambling
Glocalization: a product or service that is developed and distributed globally, but also accommodates people in a local market; fits in with local laws, customs or consumer preferences.
Where are we? Hindus don’t eat beef (use lamb or chicken meat). Also a vegetarian burger, the McAloo Tikki. What’s different?
Where are we? In Germany, McDonalds sells beer What’s different?
Where are we? In Canada and New England, there is a McLobster What’s different?
Where are we? In Hong Kong – rice burgers What’s different?
Where are we? Malaysia (Bubur Ayam McD – porridge, chicken strips, scallions, ginger, fried shallots, diced chiles) What’s different?
Bolivia - A Country with No McDonald’s • “If you traverse the South American nation of Bolivia, from the heights of the Andes Mountains to the Amazon Jungle to the urban streets of Santa Cruz, you’ll never once find a Big Mac or a McNugget. They don’t exist there and haven’t for about a decade. McDonald’s couldn’t survive in the mountainous country, so in 2002 the global fast-food chain closed its last store.”
Test: • This Friday – 47 multiple choice questions – 1 class period • ALL material from Chapter 1 (including: all of textbook, all the PowerPoints, and your review book – anything is fair game!) *this includes the boring parts of the textbook, as well as slides in PowerPoints we have not gotten to in class. It’s your responsivity to look ahead and ask questions if unsure. • Review Sheet is on website – but things not on the review sheet can be asked! Reviewing is not reteaching! I don’t lecture, I expect you to address questions! • We’ll review in class on Thursday but may not get to everything – come with questions or you may miss out! • Mostly (but not all) AP Questionsfrom past exams (I don’t write my own questions) • Questions?
What we haven’t done yet: • PowerPoint on Scale • PowerPoint on Maps & Contemporary Skills • The rest of the Globalization ppt.
Sample Question From 2016 AP exam – you need to know types of maps and map projections!
Spatial Diffusion: • Diffusion is how a cultural characteristic is spread—the origin is the HEARTH. The radiation of an idea or material cultural element from the hearth can be NODAL.
Diffusion: When a cultural trait is introduced and spreads to other areas. Often times a cultural trait can be traced to a specific place or time, other cultural traits develop simultaneously in different areas. spread—the origin is the HEARTH. The radiation of an idea or material cultural element from the hearth can be NODAL. Expansion Diffusion: When an innovation or ideas develops in a hearth and remains strong there while also spreading outward. 3 types…
Expansion Diffusion: The spread of an item or idea from a hearth and spreading outwards. In the process it remains and often strengthens in the origin area (i.e. - the spread of Islam). Made faster by modern technologies. 3 types - • Contagious diffusion: rapid widespread diffusion by direct contact. Affects all areas uniformly as it spreads outward. E.g. the spread of Islam, spread of soccer as a college sport Eastern Ivy League schools first. • Hierarchical (cascade) diffusion:the process of spreading ideas first nodes of power (like large cities) and only later to other nodes of power. E.G.- Christianity, Hip-Hop music • Stimulus diffusion: the spread of an underlying principle even though the main idea is not spread. E.g. industrialization, adoption of the veggie burger in India. Ideas take on a new form or cultural context.
Major U.S. Cities Larger cities are generally the first to experience phenomena which spreads by hierarchical diffusion. Online Activity
Diffusion: Relocation • Unlike expansion diffusion where the idea or innovation moves, Relocation diffusion occurs when people who have adopted the innovation or idea physically move to a new location where they then disseminate it
Spatial Interaction: • The farther away someone is from you, the less likely you two are to interact. • Trailing-off phenomenon of diminishing contact with the increase in distance is called distance decay. • Electronic communications have almost removed barriers to interaction between people who are far apart. • Access to the technology is of interest to geographers.
Places are connected through spatial interaction ideas information money products people
Tobler’s first law of Geography All things are related. However, all other things being equal, those things that are closest together are more related. Friction of Distance – people will move the least amount of distance possible due to cost, danger, etc.
Factors that delay diffusion: • Distance decay: the farther way and the longer it takes to reach an area, the less likely it will be adopted. • Cultural barriers: may pose obstacles to cultural diffusion-taboos or religious beliefs. • Cultural lag: when a social group is economically or psychologically unresponsive to change.
Globalization - The Global Drug Trade The Global Drug Trade (Fig. 1.6)