Can only pull. Origin Insertion Functional groups Prime movers or agonists Antagonists synergists Naming muscles 1. Location of the muscle. 2. Shape of the muscle. 3. Size of the muscle 4. Direction of muscle fibers. Rectus—straight Transverse– run at right angles to each other Oblique—diagonally. 5. Number of origins 6. Location of attachments. 7. Action The Muscular System
sternocleidomastoid- thorax to base of skull. Turns face from side to side, bends head toward chest, elevates sternum. SPLENIUS CAPITIS cervical and thoracic vertebrae to occipital rotates head, bends to one side, extends neck. SEMISPINALIS CAPITIS same as above extends head, bends head to 1 side, rotates head. Muscles that move the head and vertebral column
Epicranius—covers the top of the skull. Consists of 2 parts connected by the cranial aponeurosis. Frontalis—O—cranial aponeurosis I—skin of eyebrows and roof of nose. Raises eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead skin. Occipitalis—O—occipital and temporal bones I—cranial aponeurosis Pulls scalp posteriorly. Orbicularis Oris O—frontal and maxillary bones and ligaments of the orbit. I—tissue of the eyelid Blinking, squinting, draws eyebrows inferiorly. Muscles of Facial Expression
Zygomaticus—O—zygomatic bone I—Skin and muscle at the corner of the mouth. Smiling Orbicularis Oris—O—maxilla, mandible, and other facial muscles. I—muscle and skin at angles of the mouth. Closes lips, kissing, whistling, protrudes lips. Buccinator---O—molar region of maxilla and mandible I—orbicularis oris Compresses cheeks, sucking, whistling, chewing. Platysma—O—fascia of chest. I—lower margin of mandible; skin and muscle at the corner of the mouth. Depresses mandible; frowning, tenses the skin of the neck. Muscles of Facial Expression
Muscles of Mastication • Masseter—O—zygomatic arch and maxilla • I—mandible • Closes the jaw • Temporalis—O—Temporal fossa • I—coronoid process of the mandible • Closes jaw; elevates and retracts the mandible.
TRAPEZIUS--occipital & cervical & thoracic vertebrae to clavicle and scapula. rotates, raises, pulls scapula medially. RHOMBOIDEUS MAJOR-- thoracic to scapula raises and adducts scapula SERRATUS ANTERIOR- upper ribs to ventral surface of scapula pulls scapula anteriorly and downward. PECTORALIS MINOR-- upper ribs to coracoid process. pulls scapula forward and downward Muscles that move the pectoral girdle
CORACOBRACHIALIS-- coracoid process of scapula to shaft of humerus. flexes and adducts arm PECTORALIS MAJOR--clavicle, sternum and ribs to groove in humerus flexes, adducts, and rotates arm. TERES MAJOR-- scapula to groove in humerus extends, adducts and rotates arm medially Muscles that move the arm
LATISSIMUS DORSI--lower back to humerus extends, adducts, rotates arm medially, and pulls should down and back. SUPRASPINATUS-- scapula to humerus abducts arm. DELTOID--acromion process and clavicle to humerus. abducts, extends, and flexes the arm. INFRASPINATUS-- scapula to humerus. rotates arm medially. TERES MINOR--scapula to humerus. Rotates arm laterally. Muscles that Move the Arm
BICEPS BRACHII--scapula to radius. flexes forearm and rotates hand laterally. BRACHIALIS--anterior humerus to ulna flexes forearm at elbow. BRACHIORADIALIS- distal humerus to radius flexes elbow TRICEPS BRACHII-- scapula and humerus to ulna. extends forearm at the elbow. Muscles that move the forearm
Linea alba--xiphoid process to symphysis pubis EXTERNAL OBLIQUE--lower ribs to iliac crest and linea alba. tenses abdomen, compresses contents. RECTUS ABDOMINIS-- pelvis to xiphoid and costal cartilages. same as above. flexes vertebral column. Muscles of the abdominal wall
External Intercostals—O---inferior border of between ribs. I—superior border between ribs Elevate rib cage; Aids in inspiration Internal Intercostals—O—Superior border of rib; I—inferior border of rib Draw ribs together; depress rib cage; aid in expiration. Diaphragm—O—inferior, internal surface of rib cage and sternum; costal cartilages and lumbar vertebrae I—central tendon Prime mover of inspiration. Flattens on contraction. Breathing Muscles
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS--lower back and ilium to femus and fascia of thigh extends the thigh at the hip GLUTEUS MEDIUS--ilium to femur abducts and rotates thigh medially. ADDUCTOR MAGNUS--ischium to femur adducts, extends and rotates thigh laterally. GRACILIS--symphysis pubis to tibia adducts thigh and flexes leg at knee Muscles that move the thigh
Hamstring group BICEPS FEMORIS-- ischium and femur to fibula and tibia flexes and rotes the leg laterally. extends the thigh SEMITENDINOSUS- ischium to tibia. flexes and rotates leg medially. extends thigh. SEMIMEMBRANOSUS- ischium to tibia flexes and rotates leg medially and extends the thigh. SARTORIUS-- ilium to tibia flexes leg and thigh, abducts and rotates thigh laterally. Muscles that move the leg
Quadriceps group RECTUS FEMORIS- ilium and acetabulum to patella and to tibia. Extends leg at knee. VASTUS MEDIALIS medial surface of femur to patella same as above VASTUS LATERALIS--femur to patella same as above Muscles that move the leg.
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR--tibia to tarsal bone and metatarsal dorsiflexion and inversion of foot. EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS--tibia and fibula to phalanges. extension of toes, dorsiflexion and eversion of foot. GASTROCNEMIUS- femur to calcaneus plantar flexion of foot and flexion of leg at the knee. Muscles that move the foot
SOLEUS--fibula and tibia to calcaneus plantar flexion of foot. PERONEUS LONGUS--tibia and fibula to tarsals and metatarsals. plantar flexion and eversion, supports arch. Muscles that move the foot