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Can only pull. Origin Insertion Functional groups Prime movers or agonists Antagonists synergists. Naming muscles 1. Location of the muscle. 2. Shape of the muscle. 3. Size of the muscle 4. Direction of muscle fibers. Rectus—straight Transverse– run at right angles to each other

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the muscular system
Can only pull.



Functional groups

Prime movers or agonists



Naming muscles

1. Location of the muscle.

2. Shape of the muscle.

3. Size of the muscle

4. Direction of muscle fibers.


Transverse– run at right angles to each other


5. Number of origins

6. Location of attachments.

7. Action

The Muscular System
muscles that move the head and vertebral column

thorax to base of skull. Turns face from side to side, bends head toward chest, elevates sternum.


cervical and thoracic vertebrae to occipital

rotates head, bends to one side, extends neck.


same as above

extends head, bends head to 1 side, rotates head.

Muscles that move the head and vertebral column
muscles of facial expression
Epicranius—covers the top of the skull.

Consists of 2 parts connected by the cranial aponeurosis.

Frontalis—O—cranial aponeurosis

I—skin of eyebrows and roof of nose. Raises eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead skin.

Occipitalis—O—occipital and temporal bones

I—cranial aponeurosis

Pulls scalp posteriorly.

Orbicularis Oris

O—frontal and maxillary bones and ligaments of the orbit.

I—tissue of the eyelid

Blinking, squinting, draws eyebrows inferiorly.

Muscles of Facial Expression
muscles of facial expression7
Zygomaticus—O—zygomatic bone

I—Skin and muscle at the corner of the mouth.


Orbicularis Oris—O—maxilla, mandible, and other facial muscles.

I—muscle and skin at angles of the mouth.

Closes lips, kissing, whistling, protrudes lips.

Buccinator---O—molar region of maxilla and mandible

I—orbicularis oris

Compresses cheeks, sucking, whistling, chewing.

Platysma—O—fascia of chest.

I—lower margin of mandible; skin and muscle at the corner of the mouth.

Depresses mandible; frowning, tenses the skin of the neck.

Muscles of Facial Expression
muscles of mastication
Muscles of Mastication
  • Masseter—O—zygomatic arch and maxilla
  • I—mandible
  • Closes the jaw
  • Temporalis—O—Temporal fossa
  • I—coronoid process of the mandible
  • Closes jaw; elevates and retracts the mandible.
muscles that move the pectoral girdle
TRAPEZIUS--occipital & cervical & thoracic vertebrae to clavicle and scapula.

rotates, raises, pulls scapula medially.


thoracic to scapula

raises and adducts scapula


upper ribs to ventral surface of scapula

pulls scapula anteriorly and downward.

PECTORALIS MINOR-- upper ribs to coracoid process.

pulls scapula forward and downward

Muscles that move the pectoral girdle
muscles that move the arm
CORACOBRACHIALIS-- coracoid process of scapula to shaft of humerus.

flexes and adducts arm

PECTORALIS MAJOR--clavicle, sternum and ribs to groove in humerus

flexes, adducts, and rotates arm.

TERES MAJOR-- scapula to groove in humerus

extends, adducts and rotates arm medially

Muscles that move the arm
muscles that move the arm14
LATISSIMUS DORSI--lower back to humerus

extends, adducts, rotates arm medially, and pulls should down and back.

SUPRASPINATUS-- scapula to humerus

abducts arm.

DELTOID--acromion process and clavicle to humerus.

abducts, extends, and flexes the arm.

INFRASPINATUS-- scapula to humerus.

rotates arm medially.

TERES MINOR--scapula to humerus.

Rotates arm laterally.

Muscles that Move the Arm
muscles that move the forearm
BICEPS BRACHII--scapula to radius. flexes forearm and rotates hand laterally.

BRACHIALIS--anterior humerus to ulna

flexes forearm at elbow.

BRACHIORADIALIS- distal humerus to radius

flexes elbow

TRICEPS BRACHII-- scapula and humerus to ulna.

extends forearm at the elbow.

Muscles that move the forearm
muscles of the abdominal wall
Linea alba--xiphoid process to symphysis pubis

EXTERNAL OBLIQUE--lower ribs to iliac crest and linea alba. tenses abdomen, compresses contents.

RECTUS ABDOMINIS-- pelvis to xiphoid and costal cartilages.

same as above. flexes vertebral column.

Muscles of the abdominal wall
breathing muscles
External Intercostals—O---inferior border of between ribs.

I—superior border between ribs

Elevate rib cage; Aids in inspiration

Internal Intercostals—O—Superior border of rib;

I—inferior border of rib

Draw ribs together; depress rib cage; aid in expiration.

Diaphragm—O—inferior, internal surface of rib cage and sternum; costal cartilages and lumbar vertebrae

I—central tendon

Prime mover of inspiration. Flattens on contraction.

Breathing Muscles
muscles that move the thigh
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS--lower back and ilium to femus and fascia of thigh

extends the thigh at the hip

GLUTEUS MEDIUS--ilium to femur

abducts and rotates thigh medially.

ADDUCTOR MAGNUS--ischium to femur

adducts, extends and rotates thigh laterally.

GRACILIS--symphysis pubis to tibia

adducts thigh and flexes leg at knee

Muscles that move the thigh
muscles that move the leg
Hamstring group

BICEPS FEMORIS-- ischium and femur to fibula and tibia

flexes and rotes the leg laterally. extends the thigh


ischium to tibia.

flexes and rotates leg medially. extends thigh.

SEMIMEMBRANOSUS- ischium to tibia

flexes and rotates leg medially and extends the thigh.

SARTORIUS-- ilium to tibia

flexes leg and thigh, abducts and rotates thigh laterally.

Muscles that move the leg
muscles that move the leg26
Quadriceps group


ilium and acetabulum to patella and to tibia.

Extends leg at knee.


medial surface of femur to patella

same as above

VASTUS LATERALIS--femur to patella

same as above

Muscles that move the leg.
muscles that move the foot
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR--tibia to tarsal bone and metatarsal

dorsiflexion and inversion of foot.

EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS--tibia and fibula to phalanges.

extension of toes, dorsiflexion and eversion of foot.

GASTROCNEMIUS- femur to calcaneus

plantar flexion of foot and flexion of leg at the knee.

Muscles that move the foot
muscles that move the foot28
SOLEUS--fibula and tibia to calcaneus

plantar flexion of foot.

PERONEUS LONGUS--tibia and fibula to tarsals and metatarsals.

plantar flexion and eversion, supports arch.

Muscles that move the foot