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High Altitude Subsistence Slope Temperature Aspect Water Wind Soil Clouds. Primary Types of Subsistence/Land Use Natural Adaptation : Make use of indigenous species Modification : Adapt environment to a species or species to environment Agriculture Animal Husbandry Agro-pastoral
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Natural Adaptation: Make use of indigenous species
Modification: Adapt environment to a species or species to environment
A communally managed set of specific productive resources in which crops are grown in distinctive ways. Include Infra-structural features, a specific rationing system of resources (irrigation) and rule making mechanisms that regulate how productive resources are used.
Rights and Obligations held by different groups or actors over diverse privileges concerning land…Dictates who has the rights to use land, not the right to own land
Households and Communities, Land Creates Communities
Hardy Crops- Barley, Wheat, Quinoa
Yields versus Maturation Time
Shorter Growing Season and Longer Maturation Period
Crop Rotation and Fallow periods- Soil Fertility and Maintenance
Altitude and Crop Placement- Verticality
Aspect/Cloud Cover and Crop Placement
Double Cropping and Timing
Risk of Frost
In the Andes this is crucial to having agricultural system work
Verticality of crop growth and Anexio Villages…Exchanging crops and goods that grow at different altitudes.
“Vertical Archipelago” (Murra)
Symmetrical and Asymmetrical modes of Reciprocity
Waje-Waje- Exact Exchange (account kept, Ayuda-no account)
Minka- Return with goods, more formal, no ties
High Protein, Low Fat
Have high fecundity- 1 male and 7 females can produce 360 cuy a year- 77 lbs of meat!
Kept in kitchen-believe that they need smoke
Eat scraps and alfalfa
How does it differ from nomadism, semi-nomadism and seasonal alpine pasture use….?
Intermediate Stationed Transhumance
Dual Stationed Transhumance
Animals important for food, travel, etc., but are ESSENTIAL for agriculture and fertilization
Camelid/Yak Dung for Fuel-no trees
Sheep Dung for Fertilizer
Mixed Mountain Agriculture
Rhoades and Thompson (1975):
“The key to the success of agro-pastoral transhumance in the alpine valleys is the constant motion, the vertical oscillation of cultivators, herders and beasts following the vicissitudes of climate in an effort to exploit micro-niches at several altitudinal levels”
Is this a valid statement? Do all mountain cultures practice their land-use in this way…What about the case of Limi?
Dr. Pitambar Sharma, Geographical Development Expert: "Mountain culture is different from other cultures. If you go to mountain regions of other parts of the world, say to Bolivia or Ecuador in South America, and come back to the mountains of Nepal, you sense some commonalities. People's capacity to adapt to mountain environment - coping mechanism - is more or less similar no matter which mountain regions of the world they come from."