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Classical Greece. Identify the ways geography & climate shaped Greek life. Explain the rise & development of the Mycenaean civilization. Describe how Homer & Greek myths contributed to early Greek culture. Temple of Athena. The Parthenon. Ancient Greece. Ancient Greece.
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Classical Greece • Identify the ways geography & climate shaped Greek life. • Explain the rise & development of the Mycenaean civilization. • Describe how Homer & Greek myths contributed to early Greek culture.
Geography Shapes Greek Life • Mountainous peninsula with 2,000 islands • Most Greeks lived near the coastline • Seaways linked most parts of Greece • Sea travel will lead to large amounts of trade (no natural resources) • ¾ of Greece covered by mountains • Mountains significantly influenced Greek politics • Greeks developed small independent communities
Mycenaean Civilization • Mycenae was located in southern Greece • Protected by ridge and a wall that was 20 ft thick • Traded with Syria, Egypt, Italy, & Crete • The Minoans influenced their language, religious practices, literature, & politics • Fought a 10 year war against Troy • Trojan War
Greek Culture Declines • Mycenaean’s were destroyed by the Dorians • Dorians were less advanced • Nothing was written during this 400 year period (Dorian Age) • Homer: spread Greek history through the spoken word (Iliad & Odyssey) • Myths helped Greeks understand the mysteries of life • Controlled love, hate, fear, & jealousy
Warring City-States I. Identify the different political systems that developed in the Greek city-states. • Describe the government of Athens. • Summarize the battles & results of the Persian Wars.
Greek Political Structures • Polis: basic political unit in ancient Greece • Monarchy: ruled by single person (king) • Aristocracy: ruled by small group of rich families • Oligarchy: government ruled by a few powerful people • Tyrants: took control by appealing to the common people for support • Set up building programs, provided jobs, housing
Athens Builds a Limited Democracy • Democracy: rule by the people • Draco: all Athenians were equal under the law • Enforced most laws with death penalty • Debt Slavery: put into slavery to repay debts • 594 BC Solon outlaws slavery • Divided Athens into four social classes • Only the first three could hold office
Athenian Education • Only wealthy families received formal educations • Studied reading, grammar, poetry, history, math, music, logic & public speaking • Boys went to military schools • Girls did not attend schools • Taught at home: child rearing, weaving, preparing meals
Sparta Builds A Military State • Took over Messenia, forced people to stay on the land & work (Helots) • Dedicated themselves to building a strong military state • Government had several branches: assembly, elected officials, council of elders • Men served in the army until they were 60 • Enlisted in army by age 7 • Harsh training produced tough soldiers
The Persian Wars • Sparta & Athens united against Persian Empire • 490 BC a Persian fleet landed at Marathon • 10,000 Greeks vs. 25,000 Persians • Greeks were arranged in Phalanxes • Defeated the Persians (6,000 Persians killed, less than 200 Greeks killed) • Pheidippides was chosen to race back to Athens to warn the city (died after giving message)
Thermopylae & Salamis • 480 BC, Persian King Xerxes attempted to destroy Athens • Spartans valiant sacrifice saved Athens • All were killed at Thermopylae • Xerxes marched into Athens & burned it down (Athens evacuated) • Persian navy was trapped in the Salimis channel • Greek navy used battering rams to defeat the Persians
Consequences of the Persian Wars • Greeks were able to practice democracy • Athens became the leader of Greece, economically, socially, & philosophically • With no threat of war Athens was able to concentrate on creativity (thinking)
Democracy & Greece’s Golden Age • Who was Pericles & what were his goals? • Describe Greek architecture, art, dramatists, historians, & philosophers. • Explain the major conflicts of the Peloponnesian War.
Pericles’ Plan for Athens • Governed for 32 years • Strengthened Athenian Democracy by paying public officials • Anyone who is elected could hold public office (direct democracy) • Took $ from Delian league to strengthen the Athenian Navy & to beautify Athens
Greek Culture • Architecture/Sculptures were in classical style (graceful, perfect, balance, serenity) • Tragedy: serious drama (love, hate, war, or betrayal) Tragic Hero (pride) • Famous playwrights: Aeschylus (Orestia), Sophocles (Oedipus), & Euripides (Medea) • Comedy: made fun of politics, war, etc. • Herodotus: book on Persian War considered to be first history book • Greeks believed they could learn from the past
The Peloponnesian War • War between Sparta & Athens • Athens had the stronger navy • Sparta had the stronger army • Sparta invaded Athens territory burning food supply (grain fields) • Pericles called for all citizens to move to the city (Athens was well protected) • Plague struck the second year that killed 1/3 of Athenian population • 421 BC both groups sign truce
Philosophers Search for Truth • Socrates: wanted people to question themselves & their character • People hold contradictory opinions • Plato: student of Socrates • Wrote “The Republic”, perfectly formed govt. • Aristotle: argued according to the rules of logic (scientific method) • Teacher of Alexander