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MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN WATER AND SANITATION – FINDINGS FROM WATERAID/UNICEF PCA PROJECTS. PRESENTED IN THE 1 ST NATIONAL WATER AND SANITATION FORUM 28 TH AUGUST – 1 ST SEPTEMBER 2006. BY PROFESSOR CHARITY ANGYA CENTRE FOR GENDER STUDIES BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY, MAKURDI BENUE STATE.

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mainstreaming gender in water and sanitation findings from wateraid unicef pca projects

MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN WATER AND SANITATION – FINDINGS FROM WATERAID/UNICEF PCA PROJECTS

PRESENTED

IN THE 1ST NATIONAL WATER AND SANITATION FORUM

28TH AUGUST – 1ST SEPTEMBER 2006.

BY

PROFESSOR CHARITY ANGYA

CENTRE FOR GENDER STUDIES

BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY, MAKURDI BENUE STATE.

content
CONTENT
  • INTRODUCTION
  • METHODOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS
  • APPROACHES TO GENDER MAINSTREAMING
  • KEY PROCESS AREAS
  • FINDINGS FROM PROJECT ASSESSMENT.
  • CATEGORIES OF GENDER AWARE POLICIES
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • In 2004 WaterAid Nigeria signed a Programme Cooperation Agreement with UNICEF to work together in the implementation of the FGN/UNICEF/DFID WES project.
  • This entails working with local partners (LGAs, NGOs and CBOs) to provide access to safe water and effective sanitation facilities in 24 communities of 12 Local Government Areas in 4 States namely Benue, Ekiti, Enugu and Jigawa.
  • Mainstreaming gender in all facets of the project was a key issue stated in the PCA.
introduction cont
INTRODUCTION…Cont
  • This study was commissioned to capture and document key Gender mainstreaming processes and approaches in the PCA based on experience from each of the four states of intervention.
methodology adopted for the study
METHODOLOGY ADOPTED FOR THE STUDY
  • The Gender Based Analysis Method was used to design the information to be collected.
  • Other approaches such as Moser’s framework on basic and strategic needs were also used as a tool of analysis in addition to the triple roles framework.
  • Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were the basic tools used in gathering gender disaggregated data in addition to first hand observation.
methodology cont
Methodology…Cont
  • The study took as its sample four communities out of the six in the four focus states totaling sixteen communities out of twenty-four communities.
  • The approach was random sampling.
  • For each of the three local Governments in a state, one community was sampled while the fourth community was chosen based on logistics, time factor and accessibility.
definitions
DEFINITIONS

What is “Gender Mainstreaming”?

  • Assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes in all areas and at all levels.
  • It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and social spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated.(The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) agreed conclusions on gender mainstreaming )
approaches to gender mainstreaming
APPROACHES TO GENDER MAINSTREAMING

1. Analytic approaches

  • Assessing trends, problems and possible policy outcomes, gender differences and inequalities.

2. Procedures and work processes

  • At critical decision-making steps of normal work routines attention is paid to gender equality issues

3. Management leadership

  • This refers to management’s provision of guidance to staff about objectives and responsibilities for gender mainstreaming.
  • It also refers to management’s provision of a supportive environment for staff to explore issues and approaches
key process areas
KEY PROCESS AREAS

The Key Process Areas for this study are;

  • LGA self-selection
  • WES Unit and Management Committee (MC) formation
  • Community self-selection
  • LGA and intervention community terms and conditions of work
  • WESCOM formation
  • Baseline survey
  • Community training on project management
  • PHAST
  • Participatory planning with community
  • Training of Artisans/sani-operators/Area mechanics/spare parts dealers
  • Service delivery and
  • Hygiene promotion
slide15

WES UNIT STAFF COMPOSITION…Cont

EKITI STATE

JIGAWA STATE

summary of findings
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
  • WANG and UNICEF both show an interest in mainstreaming gender into their programmes.
  • WATSAN sector has a definite impact on women’s reproductive tasks especially as it relates to the sick.
  • It is not so clear whether increased participation in community affairs, hygiene promotion etc., takes up more time and so in reality, very little time has been gained
  • A small proportion of women are involved in community management of project. These same number double as Volunteer Hygiene Promoters.
summary of findings cont
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS….Cont
  • Women’s strategic interests are not fully addressed in project design, and implementation
  • Low literacy levels of women affect women’s participation and inclusion in management committees
  • The all inclusive nature of budgeting does not address specific needs and targets for both women and men
recommendations
RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Training and re-training of top management
  • Need for insistence on traditional partners mainstreaming gender during implementation
  • More women should be brought into WASCOM and trained in project management
  • More men should be trained as community hygiene promoters and encouraged to seek innovative ways of passing across the messages. This will ensure a more equitable distribution of labour.
recommendations cont
RECOMMENDATIONS …Cont.
  • Composition of selection committees both at the state and LGA levels should be made more gender sensitive. Spelling out the gender composition could be a starting point. Women should be trained in male dominated areas to encourage a break down in sexual division of labour (thereby addressing a strategic need and also to enable them to benefit from income available in such areas as sani-centres and other technical areas.)
  • Drilling still remains a male dominated area. Women could be encouraged and empowered to send in bids.
recommendations cont29
RECOMMENDATIONS…Cont.
  • Planning should seek out and respond to local women’s needs. All members of the organization should be given gender sensitization training. Trainings should be tailored to fit in with time constraints and operational needs of those involved.
  • Projects should spell out benefits and opportunities available to women.
  • Capacity building programmes should be provided for women in management committees.