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Benefits/Concerns Over HRC. Benefits Simplifies weed management Speeds adoption of reduced tillage systems Overall reduction in pest losses Concerns Will eventually create herbicide-resistant weeds Unknown pleiotropic effects Regulatory/marketing issues

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benefits concerns over hrc
Benefits/Concerns Over HRC
  • Benefits
    • Simplifies weed management
    • Speeds adoption of reduced tillage systems
    • Overall reduction in pest losses
  • Concerns
    • Will eventually create herbicide-resistant weeds
    • Unknown pleiotropic effects
    • Regulatory/marketing issues
    • Over-reliance on them will prematurely end their usefulness
using hpr in ipm
Using HPR in IPM
  • As a stand-alone tactic
    • Objective is to preserve the resistance; emphasis on deployment strategy
  • Integrated with other tactics
    • Crop rotation: if HRC’s are used, must rotate both for pest and herbicide type.
    • Pesticides: Emphasize measures to prevent pesticide resistance (lower doses, frequency)
    • Biological control: Conflicts do occur
    • Action Thresholds: Whenever there is significant, cultivar-specific variation in yield response to a pest, action thresholds should be re-examined
behavioral control
Behavioral Control
  • Your Text Follows This Outline:
    • Vision-based tactics
    • Auditory-based tactics
    • Olfaction-based tactics
    • Food-based tactics
  • Lecture Will Follow This Outline
    • Behavior modifiers
    • Mating disruption
    • Genetic manipulations
behavior modifiers
Behavior Modifiers

Most insect behavior modifiers are chemical

  • Semiochemicals – Facilitate communication between individuals
    • Pheromones: within a species
    • Allelochemicals: Between species
      • Allomones: Producer benefits, receiver does not
      • Kairomones: Receiver benefits, producer does not

See book discussion, pp: 379 – 382. Pay particular attention to the pheromone types.

pheromone usage
Pheromone Usage
  • Sex pheromones most widely used in IPM
  • Relatively simple chemistry enables synthetic versions.
  • Three main uses in IPM:
    • Monitoring one sex
    • Mass trapping sexually active adults
    • Interfering with mating
  • A few “Anti-pheromones” are now available. Future use unknown. Here’s an example.
pheromone disperser examples
Pheromone Disperser Examples

Plastic Spiral

Card style

Cable/Twist Tie

Rubber septum (with holder)

kairomone usage
Kairomone Usage
  • Most are attractants used as baits to attract pests to traps or bait stations. Examples:
    • Curbitacin & cucumber beetles
    • CO2 and mosquitoes
    • Protein hydrolysates and fruit flies
  • Normally attract both males & females
  • “Attracticide” – lure mixed with toxin
allomone usage
Allomone Usage
  • Mostly used as repellents
    • DEET
    • Neem extracts
  • Many are experimental & their use is still only a promise
    • Plant attractants for biocontrol agents
    • Feeding deterrents
  • All have short residual activities
mating disruption
Mating Disruption
  • Floods area with sex pheromones (cf. Fig. 14-6, p. 387). Also known as “pheromone inundation” & “air permeation”
  • Application may be via recoverable or non-recoverable methods
  • Problem: Sex pheromones mostly used with species that have high mobility.
    • Requires large area coordination
    • Many site-based characteristics affect result
genetic controls
Genetic Controls

Four categories

  • Sterilization – Mass release of sterilized individuals
  • Conditional Lethal Releases – Released individuals carry lethal genes
  • Hybrid sterility – Progeny will be non-viable
  • Other – To be developed
1 sterile insect technique sit
1. Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)
  • Steps: 1. Mass rear pest, 2. Sterilize males, 3. Flood area with these males, 4. Females will mostly mate with sterile males
  • Uses one of two sterilization techniques
    • Nuclear
    • Chemical
  • Many successes
  • Most famous application was the screwworm eradication.
requirements for sit
Requirements for SIT
  • Works best on population with low fecundity
  • Five Conditions
    • Must be able to treat entire population
    • Sterilization cannot debilitate males
    • Releases must mix sterile males well
    • Females should only mate once
    • Must sustain high ratio of sterile:wild males
2 conditional lethal release
2. Conditional Lethal Release
  • Release individuals that have a gene that proves fatal under specific conditions
  • Main paper here
  • Advantages over SIT
    • Can release both males & females
    • May require fewer released individuals
    • Can insert a wide variety of genes
  • Disadvantage: Requires several pest generations before “lethal condition”
3 hybrid sterility
3. Hybrid Sterility
  • Males & Females of different strains can produce non-viable offspring
  • Incompatible strains can be generated through several ways
    • Direct genetic manipulation
    • Microbially-mediated (Cytoplasmic Incompatibility)
for next wednesday
For Next Wednesday
  • IPM in KY Peppers
  • See Readings for Additional Items
  • Read Chapter 15, Physical & Mechanical Tactics