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# The Principles of Design - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Principles of Design. Sayre – Chapter 8 7 th edition. design. the process of organizing the visual/formal elements the product of that process. The Principles of Design. Balance Emphasis and Focal Point Scale and Proportion Repetition and Rhythm Unity and Variety

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### The Principles of Design

Sayre – Chapter 8

7th edition

• the process of organizing the visual/formal elements

• the product of that process

• Balance

• Emphasis and Focal Point

• Scale and Proportion

• Repetition and Rhythm

• Unity and Variety

***any of the Visual/Formal Elements can be used to create any of the above

• balance – achievement of equilibrium; acting influences are held in check by opposing forces; “even distribution of weight in a composition”

• actual vs. visual

• types of visual balance = symmetrical, asymmetrical and radial

• Symmetrical (a.k.a. formal) balance – the near or exact matching of left and right sides of a 3D form or a 2D composition

*What is absolute vs. bilateral symmetry?

### Symmetry is “visually inactive” which makes the work of art seem motionless and stable

Fig 183/8-3 art seem motionless and stable

Fig 184/8-4 art seem motionless and stable

Asymmetrical balance art seem motionless and stable

• Asymmetrical (a.k.a. informal balance) – the two halves are not the same; instead various visual phenomena are balanced, according to their visual and referential weights

“referential weight” (a.k.a. psychological weight) – weight we think of when we see an object

Fig 186/8-6 art seem motionless and stable

### Visual Weight Principles art seem motionless and stable(see p. 154)

Radial Balance art seem motionless and stable

• “everything radiates outward from a central point”

Fig 189/8-9 art seem motionless and stable

Fig 420/14-9 art seem motionless and stable

Emphasis and Focal Point art seem motionless and stable

• Emphasis – an area that is stressed or to which our attention is drawn in a work of art

• Subordination – neutral areas which do not draw our attention away from the emphasis/focal point

• Focal point – area of emphasis narrowed to a specific spot or figure

Fig 192/8-12 art seem motionless and stable

How might emphasis be accomplished? art seem motionless and stable

• Contrast – juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements

Contrast – with light art seem motionless and stable(Fig 124/6-7)

Scale and Proportion art seem motionless and stable

• Scale – the size relationship of one thing to another (i.e. size in reference to the “normal” size of an object)

• Proportion – the size relationship of parts to a whole

Fig 200/8-20 art seem motionless and stable

Fig 659/20-9 art seem motionless and stable

Death of Marat

Fig 160/7-2 art seem motionless and stable

Hierarchical scale/proportion art seem motionless and stable

• Use of unnatural scale/proportion to show the relative importance

Fig 652/17-9 art seem motionless and stablePalette of Narmer

Repetition and Rhythm art seem motionless and stable

• Repetition – gives a work of art continuity or “flow”

• Rhythm – organization of repeating elements in regular intervals

Fig 207/8-27 art seem motionless and stable

Zapatistas art seem motionless and stable by Orozco

Unity and Variety art seem motionless and stable

• Unity – appearance of oneness in a work of art

• Variety – appearance of diversity in a work of art

Both counterbalance or complement one another…

Fig 207/8-27 art seem motionless and stable

Fig 216/9-1 art seem motionless and stable