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Beginnings of an American Identity
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  1. Beginnings of an American Identity 5-3: The French and Indian War

  2. Braddock’s Defeat Edward Willard Deming France Claims Western Lands • Charles de Langlade was trying to force the British to leave the Ohio Valley so the Indians would trade with the French instead • Britain hoped to extend its colonies into the Ohio River Valley in defiance of France

  3. The Taking of Mary Jemison Robert Griffing Native American Alliances • Native Americans west of the Appalachians were at war with each other because … the Iroquois were trying to expand their lands in order to control the fur trade • The Huron and Algonquin allied with France • The Iroquois allied with Britain

  4. Conflict in the Ohio Valley Between 1689 and 1763 Britain and France fought 4 major wars : 1 - The War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) AKA: King William’s War 2 – The War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) AKA: Queen Anne’s War 3 – The War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748) AKA: King George’s War 4 – The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) AKA: The French and Indian War (Begins in America in 1754!)

  5. Conflict in the Ohio Valley The first three wars were caused by competition in Europe … … the 4th was caused by competition in North America over control of … the Ohio River Valley

  6. Conflict in the Ohio Valley Britain France • Large Population (1,485,000) Small Population (75,000) • Organized Colonial Militias Few Troops in Canada • Colonies are Self-Supporting Relied Heavily upon Imports • Navy Controlled Trade Routes Smaller navy Defends Europe • 13 Separate Governments Single Colonial Government • Settlements Spread Along Coast Settlements Clustered Together • Few Indian Allies (Iroquois) Strong Alliances with Indians

  7. War Begins and Spreads • Washington was sent to evict the French from the Ohio Valley • When he got close, his men shot at a group of French diplomats • French troops from Ft. Duquesne came after him • Washington hurriedly built a fortand named it Ft. Necessity • Washington was soon forced to surrender his newly-built fort

  8. War Begins and Spreads • The Albany Plan of Union … • Purpose: • Author: • Rejected: • to unify the colonies in order to defend themselves against the French • Benjamin Franklin • Colonial legislatures did not want to give up any control

  9. Braddock’s Defeat • Braddock Defeated because … • Stubborn and refused to listen to advice • Insisted upon using European tactics in North American forests • George Washington • Bravely ralliedsurvivors and led them back to Virginia

  10. The British Take Quebec • Britain gets a new PMand then a new King • William Pitt • and George III • Pitt sent his best generals andtroops to fight in America • Pitt raised money to pay forcolonial supplies and troops • To win … • The British would have to capture French cities in Canada – Quebec and Montreal

  11. British troops led by James Wolfescale Quebec’s “unclimbable” cliffs • Defeat French led by the Marquis de Montcalm The British Take Quebec

  12. The Death of General James Wolfe Benjamin West The British Take Quebec • Both Montcalm and Wolfe died in the Battle

  13. The Treaty of Paris, 1763 • Britain gains all land from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River • France gives Louisiana (west of the Mississippi) to Spain • France keeps only Haiti in the Caribbean and the islands of St. Pierre and Miguelon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence

  14. Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers through the Cumberland Gap - George Caleb Bingham Pontiac’s Rebellion

  15. The Siege of Fort Detroit Frederic Sackrider Remington Pontiac’s Rebellion • British settlers (no longer worried about the French) were moving across the Appalachians and taking Native lands • Pontiac wanted to stop the loss of Native land and culture in the lands west of the Appalachians

  16. Pontiac’s Rebellion • British government passed theProclamation of 1763 • Forbade settlement west of the Appalachians … … including in the fertile land of the Ohio River Valley

  17. 5-3: The French and Indian War