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# TOPIC 2

TOPIC 2. DATA BASE MODEL S &amp; INTRODUCTION TO ENTITY RELATIONSHIP MODELLING. Dr. W enny R ahayu. Readings : Chpts 5 &amp; 3 Elmasri &amp; Navathe. Data Model. A Data Model is a set of concepts that can be used to describe the structure of a database .

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## TOPIC 2

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1. TOPIC 2 DATABASE MODELS & INTRODUCTION TO ENTITY RELATIONSHIP MODELLING Dr. Wenny Rahayu • Readings : Chpts 5 & 3 Elmasri & Navathe

2. Data Model A Data Model is a set of concepts that can be used to describe the structure of a database. By structure of a database, we mean the data types, relationships, and constraints that should hold for the data. • Existing database models: • Hierarchical model : Represents the data in a database with a tree • structure consisting of progressive parent-child relations. • Network model : Represents the data in a database as interconnected • nodes • Relational model : represents the data in a database as a • collection of relations / tables • Object-Oriented model: represents the data, as well as operations, in • a database • In this lecture, we will focus on the most prominent data model: the Relational model. More than 90% of current database applications are built on relational database systems which utilise the relational model as their underlying data model. Topic 2 : Database Models

3. Relational Model • Introduced by C F Codd in 1970 • The most widely used database model • Simple and uniform data model • Rests on a firm mathematical foundation (Relational Algebra) Topic 2 : Database Models

4. Relational Model There are 3 major aspects of a relational data model a) Data Structure (structural part) Consists of n-ary two dimensional (attributes, tuples) tables/relations whose attributes’ domains are of atomic types. b) Data Integrity (integrity part): Consists of two general integrity rules, namely entity integrity and referential integrity. c) Data Manipulation (manipulative part): Consists of a set of algebraic operators for data manipulations. (This will be discussed in Topic 5) Topic 2 : Database Models

5. A. Data Structure

6. Data Structure • Example: Tram Database • Many different types of data are involved in running trams. • Vehicle: number, type, capacity, status, maintenance record, current depot, . . . • Route: number, start, end, tracks, . . . • Track: streets, sections, . . . • Driver: name, rating, personal details, . . . • Shift: driver, tram, route, times, . . . • Timetable: routes and times

7. Data Structure The tram database as relations (simplified) VEHICLE ROUTE DRIVER SHIFT

8. Data Structure • The Tram Database • Information about each kind of thing is presented as a table. These tables need more columns to be realistic. • Some consistency rules apply, for example: • Suburb entries should be valid suburbs, Day entries should be days of the week, . . . • It is implicit that driver names are unique, or the data won't make sense. • A tram entry in the Shift table should correspond to a row in the Vehicle table.

9. Data Structure The relational model is based on three fundamental concepts derived from set theory. (1) Domains : To define the original sets of data values used to model data. E.g. The domain of day shift is the set of all possible days : {Mon, Tue, Wed …}, the domain of salary is the set of all floating-point numbers greater than 0 and less than 200,000 (say). (2) Relation : A subset of the Cartesian product of a list of domains characterised by a name. A relation is composed of tuples. These are represented by the rows in a table. Each tuplemust have a primary key which can uniquely identify the tuple. (3) Attribute : A column of a relation designated by name. The name associated should be meaningful. Topic 2 : Database Models

10. Data Structure • Keys • It is often desirable to extract a particular tuple from a relation.For example, with a bank database each client wants the balance of a particular account. That is, there must be some way of uniquely identifying each tuple.This is usually achieved by defining some attribute to be a key, orunique label. In the “tram” database, the route number is a key-different routeshave different numbers. In banks, each account number is a key. Name and address is not a key-there can be more than one person of the same name at the same address. Keys are by definition unique, so no two tuples have the same key. More generally, a set of attributes can be a key. For example, {Start, End} is a key for Route. Topic 2 : Database Models

11. Data Structure • Primary keys • The “tram” model can be now be written: • Vehicle(No., Type, Seats) • Route(No., Start, End) • Driver(Name, Rating) • Shift(Driver, Route, Tram, Day) • The attributes that make up the keys are • underlined. Primary Key VEHICLE Topic 2 : Database Models

12. Data Structure • Foreign Keys • Attribute values for one relation can be drawn from another relation. • For example, Shift:Tram values must be from Vehicle:No. (but not vice versa– vehicles are not necessarily scheduled to a shift). • Shift:Tram is an example of a foreign key. Foreign Key VEHICLE SHIFT Topic 2 : Database Models

13. B. Data Integrity Topic 2 : Database Models

14. Data Integrity • The data models in application systems need to include certain integrity rules with the purpose of reflecting the reality of certain constraints in the real world. • Most of the integrity rules are specific, in the sense that they apply to one specific application only. For example, a Student ID must be an integer and not null. • Two integrity rules are applicable to any application: The Entity and Referential integrity constraints. Topic 2 : Database Models

15. Data Integrity Entity Integrity Constraint: • no primary key value can be null • the primary key must not be duplicated Primary Key VEHICLE Topic 2 : Database Models

16. Data Integrity Referential Integrity Constraint: • A constraint that is specified between two relations and is used to maintain consistency among tuples of the two relations. • Ensuring Referential Integrity is done by defining the columns that uniquely identify table rows (primary key) and columns within the table which refer to other tables (foreign key). Appropriate actions should be taken by the system if the referenced row is deleted/updated. Foreign Key VEHICLE SHIFT Topic 2 : Database Models

17. Data Integrity Referential Integrity Constraint (cont..) On update or delete of the target of a foreign key reference (using the vehicle-shift example), an attempt to update / delete a vehicle for which there exists at least one matching shift can be dealt with in the following ways: • CASCADE: The update / delete operation cascades to those matching shifts also. • RESTRICTED: The update / delete operation is restricted to the case where there are no such matching shifts (it is rejected otherwise). • NULLIFIES: The foreign key is set to null in all such matching shifts and the vehicle is then updated / deleted. Topic 2 : Database Models

18. Data Integrity Referential Integrity Constraint (Example) – when to Cascade, Restrict or Nullify? LECTURER DEPARTMENT Topic 2 : Database Models

19. DATABASE MODELLING USING ENTITY RELATIONSHIP MODEL [E-R MODEL]

20. TOPIC 2 TOPIC 3 TOPIC 6 TOPIC 7 Database Design The Process of Database Design Problem Domain ANALYSIS Data Modeling (eg. Using E-R Model DESIGN Relational Logical Model IMPLEMENTATION Relational DBMS

21. Database Design The Process of Database Design In previous lectures, we have discussed: • The Relational Model which is the foundation of Relational DBMS, • Data Structure and Data Integrity The problem that we haven’t solved : Given a problem description: • How do we know what tables and how many tables need to be • implemented ? • How do we establish the relationships / connections among • the tables ? We will solve the above problems using a data modelling technique called E-R Modelling.

22. ER Model • The ER model is well­suited to data modelling for databases. • It is fairly abstract, and is easy to discuss and explain. • ER models are readily translated to relations. • ER modelling is based on two concepts: • Entities, that is, things. • Relationships, that is, associations or interactions between entities. • ER models (or ER schemas) are represented by ER diagrams.

23. Entities and Attributes A central element of the ER model is the concept of an entity, which is usually an object or event in the real world: an employee, subject, account, video, receipt, public holiday, … An entity is represented by a name in a box. EMPLOYEE SUBJECT ACCOUNT

24. Entities and Attributes Each entity is associated with a set of attributes that describe it. For example, in a chain of video shops an employee has a name, address, age, and salary. EMPLOYEE salary name address age Each attribute is represented by an oval and is associated with a domainof legal values.

25. Entities and Attributes • A particular entity, or instance of an entity, has a value for each of its attributes. • Thus some employee entity might have name “Fred”, address “Clayton”,and so on. • These values are not the entity itself, but they do identify the entity: they are values that can correspond to one item in the real world. • Primary Key attribute (which uniquely identifies an entity) is indicatedby underlining.

26. Types of Attributes SIMPLE or ATOMIC Attributes eg: “Database”; “3083”; “Bundoora” COMPOSITE Attributes eg: Address may consist of Number, Street, and Suburb “5”+ “Plenty Road”+ “Bundoora” MULTIVALUED Attributes eg: Degrees of a person : “BCS”, “MIT”, “PhD” DERIVED Attributes eg: Derived a person’s age from attribute date of birth

27. Composite Attributes Most attributes are atomic, or simple eg. name, age, salary. Attributes can be composite; eg. address has several components. EMPLOYEE salary name age address street number suburb

28. Multi-Valued Attributes Most attributes are single­valued. Attributes can be multi­valued; a video can have several actors, for example. Multi­valued attributes are represented with a double oval. name actors VIDEO number studio

29. Relationships Association between two (or more) entities. primarykey Relationship ENTITY ENTITY attribute attribute

30. M N prerequisite SUBJECT enrols in STUDENT SUBJECT M N owns RENTAL SHOP VIDEO M N 1 BORROWER Degree of Relationship UNARY One entity set, recursive. Example BINARY Two entity sets linked (mostly used). TERNARY Three entity sets linked.

31. Attributes of Relationships result enrols in name title N ID M SUBJECT code STUDENT address Relationships can have attributes.

32. Constraints on Relationships CARDINALITY The number of entity instances in a relationship instance consist of three types. • 1 TO 1 : one-to-one association • 1 TO N : one-to-many association • M TO N : many-to-many association It is sometimes necessary to use a more precise method in expressing cardinality. An alternative notation is to use a pair of integer numbers (min, max) with each participation of an entity in a relationship, where 0  min  max, and max  1 (0,N) teach (1,1) LECTURER SUBJECT N 1

33. teach (0,N) (1,1) LECTURER SUBJECT 1 N PARTIAL TOTAL Participation To specify whether the existence of an entity depends on its being associated with another entity via the relationship. Two Types 1. TOTAL Participation The existence of an entity is totally dependent on the other entity. 2. PARTIAL Participation The existence of an entity is partially dependent on the other entity. Example

34. Weak Entity • Existence depends on the existence of one or more other entities. • Primary key partially or totally derived from the ‘owner’ entity. • In the following example, EMPLOYEE is the ‘owner’ entity, and • DEPENDENT is the weak entity. • Note that both the weak entity and the relationship between the • weak entity and the ‘owner’ entity are represented using double - • lined rectangular/diamond. Example employee no employee no dependent name has (0,N) (1,1) DEPENDENT EMPLOYEE 1 N

35. Relationship name E-R Diagram The steps to draw an E-R diagram • Identify entities in the required system • Represent the entities graphically by a rectangle. Entity Name • Search for relationships between the entities and represent them graphically by a diamond. • ( Note : Check for unary, binary OR ternary relationships).

36. Total Partial E-R Diagram • Identify constraints on relationships • Cardinality : Use 1, N or M and (min, max) • Participation : Total Participation is shown with double lines, Partial • participation is shown with a single line. Identify all attributes, underline primary key attributes.

37. E-R Diagram Properties are rented by tenants. Each tenant is assigned a unique number by the agency. Data held about each tenant includes family name, first name, contact address, phone number and property rented. A tenant may rent more than one property at any given time. Properties are owned by owners. Each property is assigned a unique building number. The agency only encourages a single owner for any of the properties it handles. The owner, address and value are recorded for each property. In addition, the lease period and bond, are recorded for each property rented. An owner may own several properties. Regular property maintenance is also recorded. The property, date, type of maintenance and cost are stored. Maintenance costs are charged to the property owner. Tenants pay accounts to the agency for each property they rent. These consists of date of payment, tenant, property, type of account (rental, Bond or damage) and the amount.

38. E-R Diagram Properties are rented by tenants. Each tenant is assigned a unique number by the agency. Data held about each tenant includes family name, first name, contact address, phone number and property rented. A tenant may rent more than one property at any given time. Properties are owned by owners. Each property is assigned a unique building number. The agency only encourages a single owner for any of the properties it handles. The owner, address and value are recorded for each property. In addition, the lease period and bond, are recorded for each property rented. An owner may own several properties. Regular property maintenance is also recorded. The property, date, type of maintenance and cost are stored. Maintenance costs are charged to the property owner. Tenants pay accounts to the agency for each property they rent. These consists of date of payment, tenant, property, type of account (rental, Bond or damage) and the amount.

39. E-R Diagram Solution

40. Next Lecture … Relational Database Design • Readings : Chpts 3 & 7, Elmasri & Navathe

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